豪彩vip


集团简史

中国豪彩vip集团发展简史

  前言  

作(zuo)为中(zhong)(zhong)国历(li)(li)史最为悠久的(de)(de)保(bao)(bao)险公(gong)司,中(zhong)(zhong)国豪彩vip集团92年的(de)(de)风(feng)雨历(li)(li)程,见证(zheng)了中(zhong)(zhong)国保(bao)(bao)险业的(de)(de)兴衰沉浮,承继了中(zhong)(zhong)国保(bao)(bao)险业的(de)(de)丰厚积淀,是中(zhong)(zhong)国民族保(bao)(bao)险事业诞生、成长与(yu)发展的(de)(de)缩影。

中国豪(hao)(hao)彩(cai)vip集(ji)团的起源可以追溯(su)到二十(shi)世纪(ji)二三十(shi)年代。这一时期(qi),伴(ban)随(sui)中国民族(zu)保险业的兴起,豪(hao)(hao)彩(cai)vip、中国保险和民安保险等三大品牌先后创立,并取得了初步发展。

1929年11月,太平(ping)水火保险(xian)公司(si)由当时有名的(de)(de)"北四行"之(zhi)一的(de)(de)金城(cheng)银行独资在上(shang)海创建(jian)。1934年后,它开(kai)始集团化经(jing)营,并逐渐发展为(wei)解(jie)放前我国(guo)规模最大的(de)(de)华(hua)商保险(xian)企业之(zhi)一。

1931年11月(yue),中国(guo)(guo)保险公(gong)司(si)由中国(guo)(guo)银(yin)行拨资(zi)于上海成(cheng)立。到(dao)新中国(guo)(guo)诞生前夕(xi),它已(yi)发展成(cheng)为当时规模最大(da)、实力(li)最强的保险公(gong)司(si),机构遍及(ji)国(guo)(guo)内主要大(da)中城(cheng)市,以及(ji)香港(gang)、新加坡、越(yue)南、马(ma)来西(xi)亚、印尼、泰国(guo)(guo)、缅甸和英国(guo)(guo)等地。

1943年11月,由广(guang)大(da)华行(xing)和(he)民(min)生实(shi)业(ye)公(gong)司(si)共(gong)同投资(zi)设立的民(min)安产物保险股份有(you)限(xian)公(gong)司(si)在重庆正式(shi)开业(ye)。1949年10月,由民(min)安产物保险香港(gang)分公(gong)司(si)改制成立的香港(gang)民(min)安保险有(you)限(xian)公(gong)司(si)正式(shi)开业(ye)。

92年来,从立(li)足沪上,潮涌(yong)香江,到(dao)扬(yang)帆海(hai)外,再到(dao)回(hui)归祖(zu)国大(da)陆,汇(hui)聚了一条中国民族保险业发(fa)展的(de)历(li)史长河。融合(he)了三个生生不息的(de)悠久民族品牌(pai)的(de)内在精(jing)神与强大(da)力量。

  创办发展时期(1929-1949)  

太平品牌——中国民族保险业的代表

一、太(tai)平品牌的(de)初创与(yu)发展

1929年(nian)11月20日,金(jin)城银行在(zai)上海独资注册(ce)太平(ping)(ping)水(shui)火(huo)保(bao)险公司,注册(ce)资本金(jin)100万(wan)元(实(shi)收50万(wan)元),公司由钱新之(zhi)任(ren)董事(shi)(shi)长(zhang),金(jin)城银行行长(zhang)周作民任(ren)总经理,丁雪农任(ren)第一(yi)协(xie)理,王伯衡(heng)任(ren)第二(er)协(xie)理。太平(ping)(ping)水(shui)火(huo)保(bao)险公司以太极(ji)图形(xing)为(wei)商标,取其"生生不息(xi)"之(zhi)意(yi),亮出(chu)了"豪彩vip,保(bao)险太平(ping)(ping)"的宣传口号。太平(ping)(ping)事(shi)(shi)业由此发(fa)端。

1930年2月19日(ri),太(tai)(tai)平(ping)(ping)水火(huo)保(bao)险公司(si)(si)正(zheng)式开(kai)业(ye),总(zong)部(bu)设址于(yu)上海江西(xi)路212号金城(cheng)银(yin)行大(da)(da)厦(现(xian)江西(xi)中路200号)。开(kai)业(ye)初期(qi),太(tai)(tai)平(ping)(ping)水火(huo)保(bao)险公司(si)(si)分别在南(nan)京、汉口、天津、广州(zhou)、济(ji)南(nan)、郑州(zhou)和(he)哈(ha)尔滨(bin)7个地区设立(li)(li)了分公司(si)(si);在沈阳设立(li)(li)了1家(jia)(jia)支公司(si)(si)、在北平(ping)(ping)、杭州(zhou)、九江、苏州(zhou)、青岛(dao)、镇江、长沙和(he)新浦设立(li)(li)了代(dai)(dai)理(li)处,其余(yu)各省市(shi)(shi)城(cheng)镇均有交通、金城(cheng)、大(da)(da)陆、中南(nan)和(he)国华(hua)等(deng)五(wu)家(jia)(jia)银(yin)行的(de)(de)特(te)约(yue)代(dai)(dai)理(li)总(zong)计约(yue)290余(yu)处。员工人(ren)数达200人(ren)。太(tai)(tai)平(ping)(ping)水火(huo)的(de)(de)业(ye)务(wu)(wu)以水险、火(huo)险、船壳保(bao)险和(he)汽车保(bao)险等(deng)为主(zhu),同(tong)时酌量办理(li)"玻(bo)璃"、"邮包"、"行动"和(he)"茧纱"等(deng)险种。太(tai)(tai)平(ping)(ping)水火(huo)保(bao)险公司(si)(si)采取稳(wen)健、严谨的(de)(de)经(jing)营手法管理(li)公司(si)(si),依(yi)靠金城(cheng)银(yin)行发展(zhan)代(dai)(dai)理(li)业(ye)务(wu)(wu),锐意开(kai)拓自营业(ye)务(wu)(wu)。公司(si)(si)分支机构和(he)代(dai)(dai)理(li)网点遍布华(hua)南(nan)各大(da)(da)城(cheng)市(shi)(shi),进而涉足南(nan)洋市(shi)(shi)场,成为华(hua)南(nan)保(bao)险业(ye)中规模最大(da)(da)的(de)(de)民营公司(si)(si),尤使(shi)外商同(tong)业(ye)刮目相看,从此不再藐视华(hua)商保(bao)险。

太(tai)平(ping)水火(huo)保(bao)险的(de)快速发展吸(xi)引(yin)来了(le)大(da)批的(de)投资者。1933年(nian),金(jin)城(cheng)银(yin)行(xing)拟将(jiang)太(tai)平(ping)水火(huo)保(bao)险扩(kuo)大(da)经营,而(er)其(qi)他(ta)尚未涉(she)足保(bao)险业的(de)银(yin)行(xing)也正跃跃欲试。于是(shi),金(jin)城(cheng)银(yin)行(xing)邀集交通、大(da)陆、中(zhong)南(nan)和国华等(deng)四(si)家银(yin)行(xing)加入(ru)太(tai)平(ping),资本金(jin)扩(kuo)大(da)为500万元(yuan)(实收300万元(yuan))。此次(ci)增资扩(kuo)股声势浩大(da),成(cheng)为当时金(jin)融界一大(da)盛(sheng)事(shi)。1933年(nian)7月,公(gong)司(si)改组(zu)完(wan)成(cheng)。同(tong)时,将(jiang)公(gong)司(si)名称(cheng)中(zhong)的(de)"水火(huo)"两字删去,改称(cheng)豪彩vip公(gong)司(si),并增办人寿、意外等(deng)保(bao)险业务。该公(gong)司(si)还加入(ru)了(le)国际保(bao)险公(gong)会。

豪彩(cai)(cai)vip公(gong)司成功改组之后,创立(li)(li)了责权分设(she)、内(nei)控(kong)严格的(de)(de)(de)管理(li)体制和内(nei)控(kong)方式(shi),为(wei)公(gong)司以(yi)后的(de)(de)(de)规(gui)范、快速(su)发展奠定(ding)(ding)了重要基础(chu)。改组后的(de)(de)(de)豪彩(cai)(cai)vip公(gong)司,所(suo)有董、监(jian)事(shi)(shi)均由股东(dong)银(yin)(yin)行(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)的(de)(de)(de)高(gao)级职(zhi)(zhi)员担(dan)任(ren)(ren)(ren),共(gong)19人(ren),董事(shi)(shi)会(hui)(hui)成员包(bao)括时任(ren)(ren)(ren)中(zhong)央(yang)银(yin)(yin)行(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)总(zong)(zong)裁(cai)的(de)(de)(de)孔祥(xiang)熙、中(zhong)南银(yin)(yin)行(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)董事(shi)(shi)长黄(huang)奕住、交(jiao)通银(yin)(yin)行(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)总(zong)(zong)经(jing)理(li)唐寿(shou)民(min)、金(jin)(jin)城银(yin)(yin)行(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)总(zong)(zong)经(jing)理(li)周作(zuo)民(min)等。豪彩(cai)(cai)vip董事(shi)(shi)长由中(zhong)南银(yin)(yin)行(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)董事(shi)(shi)长黄(huang)奕住担(dan)任(ren)(ren)(ren)、总(zong)(zong)经(jing)理(li)由金(jin)(jin)城银(yin)(yin)行(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)总(zong)(zong)经(jing)理(li)周作(zuo)民(min)担(dan)任(ren)(ren)(ren),丁雪农任(ren)(ren)(ren)第(di)一协理(li),王伯(bo)衡任(ren)(ren)(ren)第(di)二(er)协理(li)。并由每行(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)指派(pai)稽(ji)(ji)核(he)1人(ren),每星期(qi)到总(zong)(zong)公(gong)司开会(hui)(hui)一次,随时审查账目,稽(ji)(ji)查业(ye)(ye)务(wu)。如有经(jing)营管理(li)建(jian)议或(huo)咨询时,亦(yi)可(ke)先在(zai)稽(ji)(ji)核(he)会(hui)(hui)议上提出。在(zai)京、汉、津(jin)、哈、鲁、粤(yue)六(liu)个区(qu)域内(nei),又设(she)区(qu)稽(ji)(ji)核(he)制度,由股东(dong)银(yin)(yin)行(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)方面指定(ding)(ding)的(de)(de)(de)区(qu)稽(ji)(ji)核(he)6人(ren),分别与(yu)各(ge)分公(gong)司人(ren)员定(ding)(ding)时举行(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)会(hui)(hui)议。区(qu)稽(ji)(ji)核(he)的(de)(de)(de)职(zhi)(zhi)责和作(zuo)用,与(yu)总(zong)(zong)公(gong)司的(de)(de)(de)稽(ji)(ji)核(he)相同,所(suo)有六(liu)家股东(dong)银(yin)(yin)行(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)与(yu)四行(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)储蓄会(hui)(hui)的(de)(de)(de)各(ge)地(di)分支行(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)、会(hui)(hui),均由总(zong)(zong)公(gong)司与(yu)之订立(li)(li)契约,委托为(wei)公(gong)司的(de)(de)(de)业(ye)(ye)务(wu)代理(li)人(ren),这样,把(ba)所(suo)有六(liu)行(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)一会(hui)(hui)的(de)(de)(de)放款(kuan)与(yu)押汇(hui)上的(de)(de)(de)保(bao)险业(ye)(ye)务(wu)统统网罗(luo)在(zai)内(nei)。豪彩(cai)(cai)vip从此步入(ru)了大(da)型华商保(bao)险公(gong)司的(de)(de)(de)行(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)列(lie)。

二、开展集(ji)团化(hua)经营(ying),奠定竞争实力

20世纪三(san)四十(shi)年代,伴(ban)随着豪彩vip事业的迅(xun)速(su)壮大,从1934年起(qi)的三(san)年间(jian),豪彩vip公(gong)(gong)司陆续收购了几家华商保险(xian)公(gong)(gong)司,开始向集(ji)团(tuan)化的方向迈(mai)进(jin),逐渐建立了以(yi)太平(ping)为(wei)核心的集(ji)团(tuan)化经(jing)营(ying)模式。

1934年初,丰盛保险公司因经(jing)营不善,拟改组公司,将大部分股份(fen)售(shou)与太平,与太平合作(zuo)营业。经(jing)过谈判(pan),豪彩(cai)vip最终收(shou)购了(le)丰盛。

1935年5月,东(dong)莱银行加入,成为了豪彩vip的第六个股东(dong)。同(tong)时,东(dong)莱银行创(chuang)办的安平保险公司经(jing)营(ying)上(shang)发(fa)生(sheng)困难,亦由豪彩vip接收合(he)并。

为(wei)了加(jia)强(qiang)领导和(he)管理,1935年5月(yue),太(tai)(tai)(tai)平(ping)、安(an)平(ping)和(he)丰盛3家保(bao)险(xian)公(gong)(gong)司设立了太(tai)(tai)(tai)平(ping)安(an)平(ping)丰盛总经理处(chu)(chu),同年10月(yue),太(tai)(tai)(tai)安(an)丰总经理处(chu)(chu)创办(ban)了《太(tai)(tai)(tai)安(an)丰保(bao)险(xian)界(jie)》杂志(zhi),以为(wei)公(gong)(gong)司张目。该杂志(zhi)自第(di)五卷起更名为(wei)《保(bao)险(xian)界(jie)》,创办(ban)数年间(jian),对扩大公(gong)(gong)司的影响(xiang)起到了良好作用。

1936年5月,中(zhong)(zhong)国垦业银(yin)行投资开(kai)办(ban)(ban)的(de)(de)中(zhong)(zhong)国天一保(bao)险公(gong)司(si)因无人(ren)管(guan)理(li),也作价转(zhuan)让给豪彩vip接(jie)办(ban)(ban)。同年,原太(tai)平安(an)平丰盛(sheng)总(zong)(zong)经理(li)处改为(wei)太(tai)平安(an)平丰盛(sheng)天一总(zong)(zong)经理(li)处,集中(zhong)(zhong)管(guan)理(li)4家(jia)公(gong)司(si)的(de)(de)所有事务。上述3家(jia)公(gong)司(si)对(dui)外(wai)仍(reng)保(bao)留(liu)原来的(de)(de)牌号,各(ge)地的(de)(de)分(fen)支机构及代理(li)处仍(reng)继续营业。总(zong)(zong)经理(li)处设在豪彩vip总(zong)(zong)公(gong)司(si)内,豪彩vip公(gong)司(si)总(zong)(zong)协理(li)兼(jian)任(ren)"太(tai)安(an)丰天总(zong)(zong)经理(li)处"总(zong)(zong)协理(li)。这样,豪彩vip只须用一套管(guan)理(li)人(ren)马来处理(li)4个公(gong)司(si)的(de)(de)业务。这种欧美(mei)托拉斯性质的(de)(de)管(guan)理(li)形(xing)式(shi),在当时中(zhong)(zhong)外(wai)保(bao)险公(gong)司(si)中(zhong)(zhong)独树一帜,为(wei)业界(jie)所瞩(zhu)目。至(zhi)此,中(zhong)(zhong)国保(bao)险市场出现了以豪彩vip公(gong)司(si)为(wei)核心的(de)(de)保(bao)险经营集团。

成为集团公(gong)(gong)(gong)司(si)后,豪(hao)(hao)彩(cai)(cai)vip不(bu)但资金实力大(da)增,而且业(ye)(ye)务(wu)联系更为广(guang)泛,所(suo)有六家(jia)股(gu)东银(yin)行及四(si)行储蓄会的(de)各地分(fen)支行、会,均由总公(gong)(gong)(gong)司(si)与之订立(li)契(qi)约,委托为公(gong)(gong)(gong)司(si)业(ye)(ye)务(wu)代(dai)理人。通过这(zhei)种方式,六行一会所(suo)有放款(kuan)与押(ya)汇的(de)保险业(ye)(ye)务(wu)全(quan)部交(jiao)由豪(hao)(hao)彩(cai)(cai)vip集团承保,豪(hao)(hao)彩(cai)(cai)vip业(ye)(ye)务(wu)因此蓬勃发展。豪(hao)(hao)彩(cai)(cai)vip除(chu)在(zai)上海设(she)总公(gong)(gong)(gong)司(si)外,在(zai)京、汉、津、哈、鲁和(he)粤等六大(da)区域的(de)大(da)中(zhong)城市广(guang)设(she)分(fen)支公(gong)(gong)(gong)司(si)或代(dai)理处(chu),最鼎(ding)盛的(de)时候,全(quan)国代(dai)理网点总数达900余处(chu),还(hai)在(zai)香港(gang)、新加坡、西(xi)贡、雅加达和(he)马(ma)尼拉等地设(she)立(li)了(le)分(fen)支公(gong)(gong)(gong)司(si)。

据1939年(nian)的《中国(guo)保险(xian)(xian)年(nian)鉴》统计(ji),当(dang)时华商保险(xian)(xian)公(gong)司共有38家,资(zi)本金总(zong)额为(wei)法币(bi)3665万(wan)余元,大(da)多数公(gong)司平均为(wei)50万(wan)元左右,而豪彩vip资(zi)本金高(gao)达300万(wan)元,仅(jin)次于中央(yang)信托(tuo)局保险(xian)(xian)部的500万(wan)元,位居(ju)行(xing)业第二。

三、进军再(zai)保(bao)(bao)险(xian)业(ye),广泛开展分保(bao)(bao)业(ye)务

由于(yu)民族保险公(gong)司(si)(si)大多资本金(jin)较小,承保能力和限额(e)因(yin)此受到相应限制。为(wei)了增强(qiang)对巨(ju)额(e)业务的(de)承保力量,一些华(hua)商公(gong)司(si)(si)开始走向(xiang)联合的(de)道路。

1933年6月,肇泰(tai)、华安水火、永宁、永安、先(xian)施置业(ye)(ye)、中国海上、上海联(lian)(lian)保(bao)(bao)、通易信托公(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)司(si)保(bao)(bao)险(xian)(xian)(xian)部(bu)和(he)宁绍(shao)商轮(lun)公(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)司(si)保(bao)(bao)险(xian)(xian)(xian)部(bu)等9家公(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)司(si)发起设立(li)了华商联(lian)(lian)合(he)(he)保(bao)(bao)险(xian)(xian)(xian)公(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)司(si),并被国民政府特许为(wei)经营分(fen)(fen)保(bao)(bao)业(ye)(ye)务的(de)专(zhuan)业(ye)(ye)再(zai)保(bao)(bao)险(xian)(xian)(xian)公(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)司(si),业(ye)(ye)务重点是为(wei)各保(bao)(bao)险(xian)(xian)(xian)公(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)司(si)提供分(fen)(fen)保(bao)(bao)服务。华商联(lian)(lian)合(he)(he)保(bao)(bao)险(xian)(xian)(xian)公(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)司(si)与瑞士再(zai)保(bao)(bao)险(xian)(xian)(xian)公(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)司(si)订有分(fen)(fen)保(bao)(bao)契约(yue),解决(jue)溢额再(zai)保(bao)(bao)险(xian)(xian)(xian)。1934年1月,太平与肇泰(tai)、华安水火、上海联(lian)(lian)保(bao)(bao)、宁绍(shao)商轮(lun)公(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)司(si)保(bao)(bao)险(xian)(xian)(xian)部(bu)、先(xian)施置业(ye)(ye)、中国海上意外、永宁、联(lian)(lian)泰(tai)9家公(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)司(si)组成了中国船(chuan)舶保(bao)(bao)险(xian)(xian)(xian)联(lian)(lian)合(he)(he)会,自行制定合(he)(he)理的(de)船(chuan)舶险(xian)(xian)(xian)费率,进行相互分(fen)(fen)保(bao)(bao)。

1936年,通易(yi)公(gong)(gong)司倒闭,华商联(lian)合保(bao)险(xian)公(gong)(gong)司资(zi)金受严重影响,当年亏损2万元(yuan),联(lian)合公(gong)(gong)司面(mian)(mian)临解(jie)散的危险(xian)。经(jing)过(guo)数度接洽,豪(hao)彩vip集团出面(mian)(mian)继承(cheng)了通易(yi)名下(xia)的全部(bu)股份票(piao)面(mian)(mian)51000元(yuan),由豪(hao)彩vip认(ren)购(gou)(gou)26000元(yuan),安平(ping)保(bao)险(xian)认(ren)购(gou)(gou)25000元(yuan)。并(bing)据此(ci)修(xiu)改(gai)了华商联(lian)合保(bao)险(xian)公(gong)(gong)司章程(cheng),增加董(dong)事名额,由豪(hao)彩vip出任常务董(dong)事和董(dong)事长,主持该公(gong)(gong)司事务,安平(ping)公(gong)(gong)司任董(dong)事。自此(ci),豪(hao)彩vip又在(zai)民族保(bao)险(xian)公(gong)(gong)司的再(zai)保(bao)险(xian)领域取得了举足(zu)轻(qing)重的地(di)位。

在参加华(hua)(hua)商分保(bao)(bao)(bao)组(zu)织的同时,豪(hao)彩(cai)vip公(gong)司(si)(si)也与(yu)(yu)国(guo)外再保(bao)(bao)(bao)险(xian)(xian)(xian)机构建立了(le)(le)业务联系。1933年,豪(hao)彩(cai)vip公(gong)司(si)(si)即与(yu)(yu)一(yi)家(jia)瑞士保(bao)(bao)(bao)险(xian)(xian)(xian)公(gong)司(si)(si)商定分保(bao)(bao)(bao)协议,承保(bao)(bao)(bao)其部(bu)分国(guo)外保(bao)(bao)(bao)额(e),数量虽微(wei),但颇具(ju)影响。豪(hao)彩(cai)vip人曾经这样自豪(hao)地描述此一(yi)事件:"华(hua)(hua)商公(gong)司(si)(si)能(neng)有接受国(guo)外生意之机会,首由本公(gong)司(si)(si)开一(yi)先(xian)声,辟一(yi)荆(jing)棘,未始非可愉悦(yue)之事也。"1936年,豪(hao)彩(cai)vip又与(yu)(yu)伦敦市(shi)场的劳合社(she)、世纪、Willis Faber & Dumas等保(bao)(bao)(bao)险(xian)(xian)(xian)集团(tuan)订立了(le)(le)互惠分保(bao)(bao)(bao)合约(yue)。

四(si)、创办(ban)太平(ping)人寿(shou),实行产寿(shou)分业经(jing)营(ying)

1933年7月,太(tai)平(ping)水火(huo)增(zeng)资(zi)扩(kuo)股,股东由(you)一变(bian)五,资(zi)本由(you)100万(wan)而(er)至500万(wan)。同时(shi),还将(jiang)公司(si)名字中的"水火(huo)"二字去掉,筹办(ban)(ban)人寿保险业务。鉴(jian)于寿险业务的特(te)殊性,当(dang)年9月,董事会决定(ding)人寿保险部(bu)之(zhi)会计(ji)独立(li),并从公司(si)资(zi)本中特(te)拨国(guo)币(bi)100万(wan)元,备作(zuo)举办(ban)(ban)寿险业务之(zhi)基金。12月,公司(si)指定(ding)专(zhuan)人开始筹备事宜。1934年4月20日,人寿保险部(bu)正式成立(li),并自即(ji)日起开始对外营业,到年底(di),有效保额已达(da)170万(wan)元,之(zhi)后(hou)逐年增(zeng)加,营业范围亦逐渐扩(kuo)展至全国(guo)。

太(tai)平寿(shou)(shou)险(xian)部吸(xi)收(shou)社会(hui)各界人士组建寿(shou)(shou)险(xian)监(jian)理委员会(hui),推动寿(shou)(shou)险(xian)业(ye)(ye)务的发展。当时(shi),国民(min)党元(yuan)老林森、蔡(cai)元(yuan)培等为(wei)寿(shou)(shou)险(xian)部开业(ye)(ye)分别题词"同登人寿(shou)(shou)"和(he)"实行互助",以示(shi)祝贺。豪(hao)彩vip集团重金聘请了当时(shi)被称为(wei)"中国三(san)大寿(shou)(shou)险(xian)精算师"之一的陈(chen)思度任寿(shou)(shou)险(xian)精算师,业(ye)(ye)务得(de)到(dao)迅速发展。

1936年8月,豪(hao)彩(cai)vip收(shou)购中国天一(yi)保(bao)险(xian),天一(yi)寿(shou)险(xian)部(bu)的全部(bu)寿(shou)险(xian)契约也(ye)由太平人(ren)寿(shou)全部(bu)承(cheng)受。

1937年1月11日,当时的国民政(zheng)府修正公(gong)布《保险(xian)业法(fa)(fa)(fa)》及(ji)《保险(xian)业法(fa)(fa)(fa)施(shi)行(xing)法(fa)(fa)(fa)》,规(gui)定同(tong)一保险(xian)主(zhu)体(ti)不得兼营产险(xian)与寿险(xian)。在《保险(xian)业法(fa)(fa)(fa)》施(shi)行(xing)前兼营者,应于《保险(xian)业法(fa)(fa)(fa)》施(shi)行(xing)后两年内依法(fa)(fa)(fa)改组(zu)。划(hua)出(chu)寿险(xian)部,设(she)立单独(du)的人寿保险(xian)公(gong)司乃(nai)提上豪彩(cai)vip集团的议事日程。

太平寿险部(bu)从一开(kai)始(shi)就自(zi)成机构,业务(wu)及会(hui)计独立(li),不与其他业务(wu)部(bu)门相混合,因此改(gai)组手续较为简便。经过一年多的筹备,由太平的股东(dong)——交通(tong)、金城、大(da)陆、中(zhong)南、国华、东(dong)莱等六大(da)银行——另行认缴股本100万元国币,然(ran)后隆重地召开(kai)了创立(li)大(da)会(hui),推选周作(zuo)民(min)为董(dong)(dong)事长,丁雪农、王伯衡为常务(wu)董(dong)(dong)事,许(xu)汉卿等7人(ren)为董(dong)(dong)事,周继(ji)云等5人(ren)为监察人(ren),并(bing)呈请登记。

1938年8月10日(ri)(ri),经国民政府经济部(bu)(bu)核准(zhun),太(tai)(tai)(tai)平人(ren)寿(shou)(shou)(shou)获发营业执照。同(tong)(tong)年12月30日(ri)(ri),太(tai)(tai)(tai)平人(ren)寿(shou)(shou)(shou)保(bao)(bao)(bao)(bao)险(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)有限(xian)(xian)公司正(zheng)式公告改(gai)组(zu)成立(li),太(tai)(tai)(tai)平寿(shou)(shou)(shou)险(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)部(bu)(bu)的(de)全(quan)部(bu)(bu)资产(chan)负债(zhai)以(yi)及契(qi)约(yue)上之(zhi)权利(li)义务,全(quan)部(bu)(bu)由(you)太(tai)(tai)(tai)平人(ren)寿(shou)(shou)(shou)保(bao)(bao)(bao)(bao)险(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)公司承受。同(tong)(tong)日(ri)(ri),太(tai)(tai)(tai)平寿(shou)(shou)(shou)险(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)部(bu)(bu)取消。太(tai)(tai)(tai)平人(ren)寿(shou)(shou)(shou)保(bao)(bao)(bao)(bao)险(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)有限(xian)(xian)公司总经理由(you)周作民担(dan)任(ren),丁雪农、王伯衡任(ren)协(xie)理。太(tai)(tai)(tai)平人(ren)寿(shou)(shou)(shou)十分(fen)注重产(chan)品宣(xuan)传,发愿(yuan)"惟有人(ren)寿(shou)(shou)(shou)保(bao)(bao)(bao)(bao)险(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)可(ke)以(yi)解决(jue)人(ren)生问题",通过发布广告的(de)形(xing)式宣(xuan)传公司产(chan)品。同(tong)(tong)时(shi),向公众介(jie)绍先进、科学的(de)保(bao)(bao)(bao)(bao)险(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)理念,逐步更新人(ren)们的(de)思想观念。历史(shi)上,太(tai)(tai)(tai)平人(ren)寿(shou)(shou)(shou)也开(kai)发了多种寿(shou)(shou)(shou)险(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)产(chan)品,福(fu)寿(shou)(shou)(shou)险(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)、两全(quan)保(bao)(bao)(bao)(bao)险(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)、子女(nv)教(jiao)育(yu)金保(bao)(bao)(bao)(bao)险(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian),满足了社会的(de)不同(tong)(tong)需求,成为当(dang)时(shi)市场(chang)热销(xiao)的(de)险(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)种。

太(tai)平(ping)(ping)人寿(shou)保(bao)险(xian)(xian)有(you)限公司的(de)有(you)效(xiao)(xiao)保(bao)额(e)与(yu)年俱(ju)增,到1938年底,太(tai)平(ping)(ping)人寿(shou)的(de)有(you)效(xiao)(xiao)保(bao)额(e)已达国币700万(wan)元。到1939年底,增至国币1000万(wan)元,1941年底,有(you)效(xiao)(xiao)保(bao)额(e)更高达国币3500余万(wan)元。至此(ci),太(tai)平(ping)(ping)人寿(shou)已成为(wei)华商保(bao)险(xian)(xian)业中规模最大、实力最强和市场(chang)份额(e)最多的(de)民族保(bao)险(xian)(xian)公司。

从1929年(nian)(nian)11月(yue)豪(hao)彩(cai)vip创(chuang)(chuang)立(li)到1938年(nian)(nian)底分设太平(ping)人寿保险有(you)限公司,整(zheng)整(zheng)9年(nian)(nian)。这9年(nian)(nian)间,从豪(hao)彩(cai)vip1933年(nian)(nian)的(de)增资扩股、1935年(nian)(nian)开始(shi)的(de)集团(tuan)化经营,到1938年(nian)(nian)创(chuang)(chuang)设太平(ping)人寿,基本上(shang)是(shi)3年(nian)(nian)跨一(yi)台阶,其(qi)发(fa)展壮(zhuang)大之迅猛,实为当时所罕见。

在发展过程中(zhong),太(tai)平(ping)(ping)人(ren)(ren)寿(shou)(shou)(shou)妥善处理(li)分(fen)保(bao)(bao)出(chu)路问(wen)题,分(fen)散风险(xian)(xian),主动与(yu)(yu)华商各(ge)保(bao)(bao)险(xian)(xian)公(gong)司(si)协商签订(ding)再(zai)保(bao)(bao)险(xian)(xian)合(he)约(yue),结成联合(he)阵(zhen)线,抵(di)制外(wai)商保(bao)(bao)险(xian)(xian)公(gong)司(si)的刁难与(yu)(yu)控制。为了(le)能够(gou)更好地(di)解决分(fen)保(bao)(bao)问(wen)题,太(tai)平(ping)(ping)人(ren)(ren)寿(shou)(shou)(shou)先(xian)(xian)后(hou)派(pai)专人(ren)(ren)赴瑞(rui)士(shi)、英、法(fa)、美、日(ri)等(deng)国考(kao)察学习,深入调研国际(ji)(ji)保(bao)(bao)险(xian)(xian)业务(wu)发展新方向和新技(ji)术(shu)以(yi)及经验教训。同时(shi),加强太(tai)平(ping)(ping)人(ren)(ren)寿(shou)(shou)(shou)的国际(ji)(ji)宣传,扩大国际(ji)(ji)影(ying)响(xiang),赢(ying)得国际(ji)(ji)保(bao)(bao)险(xian)(xian)市场信任,并先(xian)(xian)后(hou)与(yu)(yu)瑞(rui)士(shi)再(zai)保(bao)(bao)险(xian)(xian)公(gong)司(si)等(deng)数家(jia)实力雄厚、信誉(yu)卓著的国际(ji)(ji)保(bao)(bao)险(xian)(xian)和再(zai)保(bao)(bao)险(xian)(xian)公(gong)司(si)签订(ding)了(le)分(fen)出(chu)与(yu)(yu)分(fen)入再(zai)保(bao)(bao)险(xian)(xian)业务(wu)的平(ping)(ping)等(deng)互(hu)惠协议。此举(ju),不(bu)仅极(ji)大地(di)提高了(le)太(tai)平(ping)(ping)人(ren)(ren)寿(shou)(shou)(shou)的国际(ji)(ji)声誉(yu),更为太(tai)平(ping)(ping)人(ren)(ren)寿(shou)(shou)(shou)日(ri)后(hou)业务(wu)发展拓展了(le)道路。

1937年,日本(ben)发动对华(hua)侵(qin)略战争,太(tai)平人(ren)寿(shou)的(de)(de)事业(ye)受(shou)到巨大(da)冲击。此时(shi),太(tai)平人(ren)寿(shou)在(zai)国(guo)(guo)内各(ge)大(da)城市已(yi)经(jing)(jing)建立起了完善的(de)(de)经(jing)(jing)营(ying)网(wang)络(luo),北起哈尔滨,南(nan)到香港,西接(jie)重庆,东至上(shang)海(hai)都(dou)开设有(you)分支机构(gou)及代理处(chu);在(zai)国(guo)(guo)外(wai)西贡、巴达(da)维亚(ya)、新加坡、马(ma)尼拉(la)等地也(ye)设立了分支公(gong)司(si)。受(shou)战乱影响(xiang),除了国(guo)(guo)外(wai)分支公(gong)司(si)和西南(nan)地区的(de)(de)分支机构(gou)得以幸免之外(wai),国(guo)(guo)内大(da)部分分支机构(gou)遭到破坏,员工(gong)大(da)量流失,经(jing)(jing)营(ying)处(chu)于瘫痪状态。因(yin)此,这一时(shi)期太(tai)平人(ren)寿(shou)的(de)(de)经(jing)(jing)营(ying)重点集中在(zai)了国(guo)(guo)外(wai)业(ye)务,受(shou)到海(hai)外(wai)华(hua)侨(qiao)及当地民众的(de)(de)欢迎和支持。

五、组织太平分保集团,于(yu)乱世中苦(ku)撑

1937年,抗日战争爆(bao)发,上海租界成为"孤岛"。随着(zhe)国民政府西撤,大(da)批工商企(qi)业内(nei)迁,西南大(da)后方(fang)的(de)(de)经(jing)济有(you)了(le)发展的(de)(de)契机(ji),内(nei)地保(bao)险业也得以相应(ying)(ying)发展。豪彩vip适(shi)应(ying)(ying)形势变(bian)化(hua)亦在重(zhong)庆(qing)设立(li)了(le)总经(jing)理处(chu),称(cheng)渝总处(chu)。陪都重(zhong)庆(qing)成为大(da)后方(fang)保(bao)险业的(de)(de)中心,我国民族保(bao)险业出(chu)现了(le)第二(er)次(ci)繁荣(rong)。

由于(yu)外商(shang)(shang)保(bao)(bao)险(xian)公(gong)(gong)司(si)(si)长期垄断(duan)中国保(bao)(bao)险(xian)市场,加上华(hua)(hua)商(shang)(shang)保(bao)(bao)险(xian)公(gong)(gong)司(si)(si)资金短缺,实力(li)薄弱(ruo),中国民(min)族(zu)保(bao)(bao)险(xian)公(gong)(gong)司(si)(si)的(de)再保(bao)(bao)险(xian)问题(ti)一直(zhi)都依赖外商(shang)(shang)保(bao)(bao)险(xian)公(gong)(gong)司(si)(si)解决,主要是英商(shang)(shang)、美(mei)商(shang)(shang)及(ji)瑞士(shi)再保(bao)(bao)险(xian)公(gong)(gong)司(si)(si)。民(min)族(zu)再保(bao)(bao)险(xian)业起步(bu)很晚,太平(ping)洋(yang)战争爆(bao)发后,华(hua)(hua)商(shang)(shang)保(bao)(bao)险(xian)公(gong)(gong)司(si)(si)对英美(mei)等国的(de)分保(bao)(bao)渠道被(bei)迫中断(duan)。上海(hai)的(de)华(hua)(hua)商(shang)(shang)保(bao)(bao)险(xian)公(gong)(gong)司(si)(si)必须(xu)自谋(mou)出(chu)路,组建华(hua)(hua)商(shang)(shang)分保(bao)(bao)集团。

1942年2月,豪彩vip公(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)司(si)在上海联(lian)合(he)宝隆(long)、大(da)业等保(bao)(bao)险公(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)司(si)组成(cheng)太(tai)(tai)(tai)平分(fen)保(bao)(bao)集团(tuan)(tuan)(tuan),到(dao)7月,成(cheng)员(yuan)公(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)司(si)扩大(da)至19家(jia)。几(ji)年内,上海的(de)(de)(de)华(hua)商保(bao)(bao)险公(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)司(si)相继组建了大(da)上海、久(jiu)联(lian)、五联(lian)、十五联(lian)、华(hua)商联(lian)合(he)等分(fen)保(bao)(bao)集团(tuan)(tuan)(tuan),加上太(tai)(tai)(tai)平分(fen)保(bao)(bao)集团(tuan)(tuan)(tuan),共(gong)计6个,参加公(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)司(si)达80家(jia)。在这6家(jia)中,太(tai)(tai)(tai)平分(fen)保(bao)(bao)集团(tuan)(tuan)(tuan)颇(po)有(you)些与(yu)众不同。太(tai)(tai)(tai)平档案对(dui)此有(you)如下(xia)记载:"讲(jiang)到(dao)太(tai)(tai)(tai)平分(fen)保(bao)(bao)集团(tuan)(tuan)(tuan)的(de)(de)(de)特点,就(jiu)是一(yi)切集团(tuan)(tuan)(tuan)事宜,均(jun)由太(tai)(tai)(tai)平一(yi)家(jia)负(fu)(fu)责(ze)处理(li),不受其(qi)(qi)他会(hui)员(yuan)公(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)司(si)的(de)(de)(de)支(zhi)配与(yu)节制,与(yu)久(jiu)联(lian)集团(tuan)(tuan)(tuan)由参加公(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)司(si)另(ling)(ling)组办(ban)事处及大(da)上海集团(tuan)(tuan)(tuan)之(zhi)另(ling)(ling)组一(yi)公(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)司(si)专司(si)其(qi)(qi)事者有(you)显著区(qu)别(bie)。还有(you)太(tai)(tai)(tai)平与(yu)国内外同业订立溢额合(he)约分(fen)保(bao)(bao)多(duo)以互惠为(wei)原则,惟因此而获得的(de)(de)(de)分(fen)入合(he)约分(fen)保(bao)(bao),均(jun)由太(tai)(tai)(tai)平独家(jia)接受,并不能分(fen)与(yu)集团(tuan)(tuan)(tuan)会(hui)员(yuan)公(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)司(si)。因为(wei)一(yi)则它们资力薄弱,不愿负(fu)(fu)额外的(de)(de)(de)责(ze)任;二(er)则国外无分(fen)支(zhi)机(ji)构,遇有(you)赔款,无法按原币摊付。"

在旧中(zhong)国,原先的保险(xian)(xian)(xian)单虽有中(zhong)、英文(wen)(wen)两种文(wen)(wen)字,但一(yi)旦(dan)保户与公司发(fa)生(sheng)争议(yi),一(yi)律以保单中(zhong)的英文(wen)(wen)条(tiao)款为(wei)准(zhun),为(wei)此(ci)"太平(ping)"率先向外商保险(xian)(xian)(xian)业(ye)发(fa)难,力主废除这(zhei)一(yi)歧视、排(pai)挤华(hua)商保险(xian)(xian)(xian)业(ye)的不公平(ping)的规(gui)定(ding)。这(zhei)个倡议(yi)受到了华(hua)商保险(xian)(xian)(xian)同业(ye)的赞赏和支持,几经力争,终于(yu)迫(po)使(shi)洋(yang)商保险(xian)(xian)(xian)业(ye)在保单中(zhong)删除这(zhei)一(yi)条(tiao),为(wei)华(hua)商保险(xian)(xian)(xian)业(ye)顺利开(kai)展业(ye)务创(chuang)造(zao)了有利条(tiao)件。

华商保险(xian)公司组建分保集团,有效地解(jie)决了民族(zu)保险(xian)业的风险(xian)分散问题,并为华商保险(xian)业逐(zhu)步(bu)自主经营打下了基础。

抗战胜利后,物价骤(zhou)涨,中(zhong)国保(bao)(bao)(bao)险(xian)业遭(zao)到严重摧残,保(bao)(bao)(bao)户(hu)对金圆券已失去信心(xin),即使有投保(bao)(bao)(bao)意向,也(ye)只愿(yuan)以外币保(bao)(bao)(bao)额(e)投保(bao)(bao)(bao)和计算(suan)赔(pei)款(kuan)。于是(shi),国营(ying)保(bao)(bao)(bao)险(xian)公(gong)(gong)司(si)和其他(ta)一些尚(shang)有余力的保(bao)(bao)(bao)险(xian)公(gong)(gong)司(si),改以银(yin)元、美金和港币承保(bao)(bao)(bao)。太平分保(bao)(bao)(bao)集团也(ye)曾于1948年7月1日(ri)组(zu)织了包括(kuo)22家成(cheng)员公(gong)(gong)司(si)的外币业务集团,于艰危时世中(zhong)勉力支撑,直(zhi)到1949年解(jie)放前才解(jie)散。

  中国保险公司——旧官僚保险资本的代表者  

一、中国保(bao)险公司的初期发展

1928年(nian),南京国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)民政府设立(li)中央银(yin)行(xing)(xing),中国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)银(yin)行(xing)(xing)成为经(jing)营国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)外汇兑业(ye)务(wu)的专业(ye)银(yin)行(xing)(xing)。1929年(nian),中国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)银(yin)行(xing)(xing)副总裁张嘉璈出国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)考察时(shi),对美国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)保(bao)(bao)(bao)(bao)(bao)险业(ye)在经(jing)济大萧条时(shi)期挽救美国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)财政金融危机的作用(yong),感受很(hen)深。因此,张回国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)后(hou)向董事(shi)会(hui)(hui)建议(yi)设立(li)中国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)保(bao)(bao)(bao)(bao)(bao)险公(gong)司,借以保(bao)(bao)(bao)(bao)(bao)障(zhang)中国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)银(yin)行(xing)(xing)财产及贷款安全,同(tong)时(shi)也可(ke)以通(tong)过(guo)开展保(bao)(bao)(bao)(bao)(bao)险业(ye)务(wu)收取保(bao)(bao)(bao)(bao)(bao)费,增加(jia)收入。董事(shi)会(hui)(hui)通(tong)过(guo)此建议(yi),决定成立(li)中国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)保(bao)(bao)(bao)(bao)(bao)险公(gong)司,实行(xing)(xing)股(gu)份有限责(ze)任制,额定资(zi)本国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)币500万元(分为5万股(gu)),先收半数,由中国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)银(yin)行(xing)(xing)独家投资(zi)。

1931年11月,中(zhong)(zhong)国(guo)(guo)保(bao)险(xian)(xian)(xian)公司在上海四川中(zhong)(zhong)路270号设(she)立(li),对(dui)外营业(ye)(ye)处(chu)(chu)(chu)设(she)在仁记路(今滇池路)的中(zhong)(zhong)行行址。中(zhong)(zhong)行上海分行总(zong)经(jing)(jing)理(li)(li)宋(song)汉章(1872-1968)兼(jian)任(ren)(ren)公司董(dong)事(shi)长,全权(quan)操办一切事(shi)务(wu)(wu);过福云(yun)任(ren)(ren)总(zong)经(jing)(jing)理(li)(li),陈伯源任(ren)(ren)副(fu)总(zong)经(jing)(jing)理(li)(li)兼(jian)总(zong)务(wu)(wu)处(chu)(chu)(chu)处(chu)(chu)(chu)长,孙志广任(ren)(ren)副(fu)总(zong)经(jing)(jing)理(li)(li)兼(jian)业(ye)(ye)务(wu)(wu)处(chu)(chu)(chu)处(chu)(chu)(chu)长;常务(wu)(wu)董(dong)事(shi)包(bao)括(kuo)张(zhang)公权(quan)、贝(bei)祖诒、潘久芬和汪振声(sheng)。各地中(zhong)(zhong)行机构兼(jian)作中(zhong)(zhong)国(guo)(guo)保(bao)险(xian)(xian)(xian)的经(jing)(jing)理(li)(li)处(chu)(chu)(chu)或分行经(jing)(jing)理(li)(li)处(chu)(chu)(chu);中(zhong)(zhong)行分行经(jing)(jing)理(li)(li)则出面兼(jian)任(ren)(ren)中(zhong)(zhong)国(guo)(guo)保(bao)险(xian)(xian)(xian)的代理(li)(li)人(ren)(ren),以中(zhong)(zhong)行良好信(xin)誉作为(wei)后(hou)盾,迅速展开保(bao)险(xian)(xian)(xian)业(ye)(ye)务(wu)(wu)。后(hou)在承保(bao)业(ye)(ye)务(wu)(wu)较(jiao)多的天津(jin)、济南和汉口(kou)等地,另(ling)设(she)专(zhuan)人(ren)(ren)负责保(bao)险(xian)(xian)(xian)业(ye)(ye)务(wu)(wu)。该公司于1944年10月奉(feng)国(guo)(guo)民党政府经(jing)(jing)济部指令,易名为(wei)中(zhong)(zhong)国(guo)(guo)产物保(bao)险(xian)(xian)(xian)公司。

中(zhong)国保险公司由于具有(you)实力雄厚的(de)中(zhong)国银行的(de)特殊背景,所以一经成(cheng)立,就迅猛发展(zhan),在业界颇有(you)后(hou)来居上(shang)之势。

二、产(chan)寿兼营(ying),市场影响不断扩大(da)

中(zhong)国(guo)保(bao)(bao)(bao)(bao)(bao)(bao)险(xian)(xian)公(gong)司(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)最初以经营火险(xian)(xian)为(wei)主,但因其他公(gong)司(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)的(de)激烈竞争,公(gong)司(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)基(ji)本无利可图。通过深(shen)入实地调查,中(zhong)国(guo)保(bao)(bao)(bao)(bao)(bao)(bao)险(xian)(xian)发现,市场上(shang)诸(zhu)多险(xian)(xian)种尚未(wei)开(kai)办(ban),潜力巨大,于是便(bian)先(xian)他人一步,率先(xian)开(kai)办(ban)了(le)茧子险(xian)(xian)、银钞险(xian)(xian)、运输(shu)险(xian)(xian)、汽车险(xian)(xian)、邮包险(xian)(xian)、奶牛险(xian)(xian)、电梯险(xian)(xian)、柜窗玻璃险(xian)(xian)、船(chuan)壳险(xian)(xian)和(he)(he)水上(shang)运输(shu)险(xian)(xian)等。另外还(hai)仿效西方(fang)保(bao)(bao)(bao)(bao)(bao)(bao)险(xian)(xian)业(ye),开(kai)办(ban)了(le)再(zai)(zai)保(bao)(bao)(bao)(bao)(bao)(bao)险(xian)(xian)业(ye)务。再(zai)(zai)保(bao)(bao)(bao)(bao)(bao)(bao)险(xian)(xian)业(ye)务为(wei)求稳(wen)妥,少冒风险(xian)(xian),公(gong)司(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)承保(bao)(bao)(bao)(bao)(bao)(bao)后,对(dui)每一个承保(bao)(bao)(bao)(bao)(bao)(bao)的(de)危险(xian)(xian)单(dan)位(wei),先(xian)定(ding)下一个总的(de)自负责任的(de)数额(即(ji)自留额),超过这些限额的(de)溢(yi)额则(ze)分给其他保(bao)(bao)(bao)(bao)(bao)(bao)险(xian)(xian)公(gong)司(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)分保(bao)(bao)(bao)(bao)(bao)(bao),即(ji)再(zai)(zai)保(bao)(bao)(bao)(bao)(bao)(bao)险(xian)(xian)。再(zai)(zai)保(bao)(bao)(bao)(bao)(bao)(bao)险(xian)(xian)人对(dui)危险(xian)(xian)单(dan)位(wei)的(de)承受(shou)(shou)限额,以约(yue)定(ding)的(de)最高金额及约(yue)定(ding)承受(shou)(shou)"倍(bei)数"为(wei)限("倍(bei)数"又(you)称(cheng)"线(xian)数")。中(zhong)行(xing)和(he)(he)英(ying)商太阳保(bao)(bao)(bao)(bao)(bao)(bao)险(xian)(xian)公(gong)司(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)等承保(bao)(bao)(bao)(bao)(bao)(bao)公(gong)司(si)(si)(si)(si)(si),承担20条线(xian)中(zhong)的(de)10条,其余(yu)邀集伦敦其他保(bao)(bao)(bao)(bao)(bao)(bao)险(xian)(xian)公(gong)司(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)承担。1934年,中(zhong)国(guo)保(bao)(bao)(bao)(bao)(bao)(bao)险(xian)(xian)还(hai)与英(ying)商太阳保(bao)(bao)(bao)(bao)(bao)(bao)险(xian)(xian)公(gong)司(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)签(qian)订了(le)再(zai)(zai)保(bao)(bao)(bao)(bao)(bao)(bao)险(xian)(xian)业(ye)务合同。

1933年(nian)(nian),中(zhong)(zhong)国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)保(bao)(bao)险(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)公(gong)(gong)(gong)司又拨出50万元作(zuo)为人寿保(bao)(bao)险(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)部的(de)(de)基金,开始经营人寿保(bao)(bao)险(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)业(ye)务(wu)(wu)。业(ye)务(wu)(wu)种(zhong)类有终(zhong)身人寿保(bao)(bao)险(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)、储(chu)蓄保(bao)(bao)险(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)、人身意(yi)外保(bao)(bao)险(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)、劳工保(bao)(bao)险(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)和雇主责任保(bao)(bao)险(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)等(deng)12种(zhong)之(zhi)多。1937年(nian)(nian),国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)民政(zheng)府修正公(gong)(gong)(gong)布《保(bao)(bao)险(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)业(ye)法(fa)》及《保(bao)(bao)险(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)业(ye)法(fa)施行(xing)法(fa)》规定,同一保(bao)(bao)险(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)业(ye)不得兼营产险(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)与(yu)寿险(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)。同年(nian)(nian),中(zhong)(zhong)国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)保(bao)(bao)险(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)公(gong)(gong)(gong)司的(de)(de)人寿保(bao)(bao)险(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)部改组为中(zhong)(zhong)国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)人寿保(bao)(bao)险(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)公(gong)(gong)(gong)司,额(e)定资本国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)币100万元,先收半(ban)数。其中(zhong)(zhong),中(zhong)(zhong)国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)保(bao)(bao)险(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)公(gong)(gong)(gong)司投资48.8万元,中(zhong)(zhong)国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)银(yin)行(xing)投资1.2万元。该公(gong)(gong)(gong)司开业(ye)初(chu)期,各地业(ye)务(wu)(wu)均(jun)委托中(zhong)(zhong)国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)银(yin)行(xing)代理,代理处多达85处。随着业(ye)务(wu)(wu)的(de)(de)不断发展(zhan)、逐步(bu)在(zai)(zai)重庆、西安、天津、汉口、南京(jing)、广州(zhou)、北平、长沙、青岛、济南、芜湖、南通、扬州(zhou)和昆明(ming)等(deng)地设立(li)分(fen)支公(gong)(gong)(gong)司,并在(zai)(zai)香港和国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)外的(de)(de)新加坡、西贡、马尼拉、暹罗、吉隆坡、伦敦和仰光(guang)等(deng)地设立(li)分(fen)支机构或经理处、代理处。中(zhong)(zhong)国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)人寿保(bao)(bao)险(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)公(gong)(gong)(gong)司的(de)(de)建立(li),对华商(shang)人寿保(bao)(bao)险(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)业(ye)的(de)(de)发展(zhan)起了相当(dang)大的(de)(de)推动作(zuo)用。

1936年6月,中(zhong)国保(bao)(bao)险(xian)公司为(wei)参加第11届奥(ao)运会的中(zhong)国体育(yu)代表团承(cheng)保(bao)(bao)了团体寿险(xian),每人保(bao)(bao)额(e)2000元,投保(bao)(bao)期限一部(bu)分为(wei)6个月,一部(bu)分为(wei)4个月。这(zhei)也(ye)是可(ke)以载(zai)入(ru)史(shi)册(ce)的史(shi)无(wu)前例之事。

由(you)于具有资本实力强(qiang)大(da)的(de)股东背(bei)景,中国(guo)(guo)保(bao)险(xian)公(gong)司(si)的(de)创立大(da)大(da)改变了以往(wang)华商保(bao)险(xian)公(gong)司(si)常因(yin)资金不足(zu)、难(nan)以与洋商竞争的(de)局面。中国(guo)(guo)保(bao)险(xian)公(gong)司(si)创办(ban)短短3年间,机(ji)构扩张速度很快。据统计(ji),截至1934年底,中国(guo)(guo)保(bao)险(xian)公(gong)司(si)在全(quan)国(guo)(guo)范围(wei)的(de)外埠经理处(chu)(chu),计(ji)为:浙江(jiang)15处(chu)(chu),江(jiang)苏12处(chu)(chu),山东8处(chu)(chu),辽宁、安徽各6处(chu)(chu),吉林(lin)、湖(hu)北(bei)各3处(chu)(chu),江(jiang)西、湖(hu)南(nan)、四川、福(fu)建、广(guang)东、河北(bei)、河南(nan)各2处(chu)(chu),黑龙江(jiang)1处(chu)(chu),另设(she)欧洲代理处(chu)(chu)1处(chu)(chu)(英国(guo)(guo)伦敦威立斯(si)公(gong)司(si))。

三、中国保险香港分公(gong)司(si)和新加坡分公(gong)司(si)相继成立(li)

1937年(nian)抗(kang)(kang)日(ri)战(zhan)争(zheng)全(quan)面(mian)爆(bao)发(fa)后(hou),国(guo)民政府迁(qian)都(dou)重(zhong)(zhong)庆(qing),大批工(gong)商企业也(ye)随之内迁(qian),西南等大后(hou)方的(de)经(jing)济迎来(lai)了发(fa)展契机,保(bao)险(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)中(zhong)心也(ye)由抗(kang)(kang)战(zhan)前的(de)上海转移到了战(zhan)时(shi)的(de)重(zhong)(zhong)庆(qing)。1945年(nian)抗(kang)(kang)战(zhan)胜利后(hou),许多保(bao)险(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)机构(gou)纷(fen)纷(fen)回迁(qian)上海。中(zhong)国(guo)保(bao)险(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)公司的(de)经(jing)历很有代表性。为因应战(zhan)时(shi)时(shi)局的(de)变化,中(zhong)国(guo)保(bao)险(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)公司总(zong)管理(li)处(chu)(chu)也(ye)于此间(jian)迁(qian)入上海的(de)英(ying)租界内。1941年(nian)12月,"珍珠港事件(jian)"爆(bao)发(fa)后(hou),日(ri)军占领上海租界。上海中(zhong)国(guo)保(bao)险(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)总(zong)管理(li)处(chu)(chu)将一部(bu)分职工(gong)派往重(zhong)(zhong)庆(qing),在(zai)重(zhong)(zhong)庆(qing)上清(qing)寺中(zhong)行办(ban)事处(chu)(chu)楼上设立了中(zhong)国(guo)保(bao)险(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)公司总(zong)管理(li)处(chu)(chu)办(ban)公室(shi)。1943年(nian),中(zhong)国(guo)保(bao)险(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)公司总(zong)经(jing)理(li)宋汉(han)章在(zai)重(zhong)(zhong)庆(qing)玄(xuan)坛庙正式改组总(zong)管理(li)处(chu)(chu),行使(shi)总(zong)公司的(de)职权。

中国保险(xian)公司是最早进入(ru)大后方保险(xian)市(shi)场的(de)(de)保险(xian)公司,从(cong)业(ye)务量和(he)(he)保费收(shou)入(ru)看(kan),它(ta)是战时西(xi)南和(he)(he)西(xi)北保险(xian)同业(ye)中影响较(jiao)大的(de)(de)保险(xian)企业(ye),年(nian)保费仅次于(yu)中央信托局保险(xian)部。它(ta)在内地(di)设立(li)了重庆和(he)(he)西(xi)安两家分公司(但西(xi)安分公司成立(li)不久便宣告撤销(xiao)),先后在桂(gui)林(lin)、昆明、贵阳、乐山、内江、自贡和(he)(he)成都等内地(di)城市(shi)开展业(ye)务。

1937年(nian)"八·一三(san)"抗战后,日军占领上海。同年(nian)11月(yue),中国保险公司(si)在(zai)香(xiang)港设立了总(zong)经理(li)处。部分高级管(guan)理(li)人员(yuan)离沪(hu)赴港,不久(jiu)撤往内地(di)。此后直至(zhi)抗日战争结束(shu),中国保险公司(si)主要在(zai)西南大(da)后方城市,以(yi)及香(xiang)港和(he)东南亚地(di)区开展业务。

1938年(nian)初,中(zhong)国(guo)保(bao)(bao)险(xian)(xian)(xian)公(gong)(gong)司(si)(si)派遣总公(gong)(gong)司(si)(si)襄理(li)金(jin)(jin)通明到(dao)香(xiang)港(gang)(gang)(gang)筹办(ban)策划开(kai)(kai)业事宜。金(jin)(jin)通明先(xian)生于该年(nian)3月(yue)抵(di)达香(xiang)港(gang)(gang)(gang)后,首先(xian)在德(de)辅道中(zhong)6号广东(dong)银行大厦租得楼(lou)面为筹备处,面积(ji)仅(jin)300余方(fang)尺(chi),并开(kai)(kai)始招(zhao)聘工(gong)友以及办(ban)事员,当(dang)时员工(gong)仅(jin)有2人,向公(gong)(gong)司(si)(si)注(zhu)册署(shu)缴交保(bao)(bao)证金(jin)(jin)水火(huo)险(xian)(xian)(xian)各港(gang)(gang)(gang)币10万元,人寿险(xian)(xian)(xian)20万元,合计(ji)共40万元。中(zhong)国(guo)保(bao)(bao)险(xian)(xian)(xian)公(gong)(gong)司(si)(si)香(xiang)港(gang)(gang)(gang)分(fen)公(gong)(gong)司(si)(si)正式成立(li)。1939年(nian)7月(yue)1日,中(zhong)国(guo)保(bao)(bao)险(xian)(xian)(xian)公(gong)(gong)司(si)(si)新加坡(po)分(fen)公(gong)(gong)司(si)(si)成立(li)。1941年(nian)底,中(zhong)国(guo)保(bao)(bao)险(xian)(xian)(xian)公(gong)(gong)司(si)(si)香(xiang)港(gang)(gang)(gang)分(fen)公(gong)(gong)司(si)(si)员工(gong)增至16人,办(ban)公(gong)(gong)室原址扩大至1000余方(fang)尺(chi),香(xiang)港(gang)(gang)(gang)分(fen)公(gong)(gong)司(si)(si)除了将溢(yi)额在同(tong)业中(zhong)进行分(fen)保(bao)(bao)外(wai),还(hai)与(yu)伦(lun)敦威立(li)斯(si)公(gong)(gong)司(si)(si)建立(li)了分(fen)保(bao)(bao)关系。随后,日军占据香(xiang)港(gang)(gang)(gang),"香(xiang)港(gang)(gang)(gang)分(fen)公(gong)(gong)司(si)(si)"业务也陷于停顿(dun)。翌年(nian)3月(yue),日军欲复(fu)兴市(shi)面,下令各商(shang)号复(fu)业。华商(shang)保(bao)(bao)险(xian)(xian)(xian)同(tong)业首先(xian)恢(hui)复(fu)的是火(huo)险(xian)(xian)(xian),"香(xiang)港(gang)(gang)(gang)分(fen)公(gong)(gong)司(si)(si)金(jin)(jin)经(jing)理(li)与(yu)华商(shang)主席(xi)共同(tong)协作,设立(li)火(huo)险(xian)(xian)(xian)分(fen)保(bao)(bao)组,迄今(jin)公(gong)(gong)会分(fen)保(bao)(bao)组仍(reng)继续运(yun)作。"此外(wai),中(zhong)国(guo)保(bao)(bao)险(xian)(xian)(xian)公(gong)(gong)司(si)(si)还(hai)在马尼拉(la)、河内(nei)、西(xi)贡(gong)、曼谷和(he)泗水等东(dong)南亚地(di)区开(kai)(kai)展业务。太平洋战争爆发后,海外(wai)机构纷纷停业。

四、更名(ming)中国产物保险公(gong)司迁沪办(ban)公(gong)

抗(kang)日(ri)战争胜利后,随着时(shi)局变化,金(jin)融市(shi)场重心由大后方转回(hui)上海,一些保险(xian)公司纷纷复员(yuan)或(huo)迁沪(hu)办公,上海又(you)恢复成全国(guo)保险(xian)业的(de)中(zhong)心。中(zhong)国(guo)产(chan)物(wu)保险(xian)公司(于(yu)1944年(nian)2月(yue)奉国(guo)民(min)政(zheng)(zheng)府财政(zheng)(zheng)部命令更名)于(yu)1945年(nian)5月(yue)12日(ri)在香港设立总管理处驻(zhu)港临时(shi)办事(shi)处。1946年(nian),宋(song)(song)汉(han)章(zhang)由重庆返回(hui)上海,中(zhong)国(guo)产(chan)物(wu)保险(xian)公司也迁沪(hu)办公,宋(song)(song)汉(han)章(zhang)仍担(dan)任董(dong)事(shi)长。

五、上海解(jie)放和中国产物(wu)保险公司的率(lv)先复(fu)业

1947年7月以(yi)后,中(zhong)国共产党领(ling)导的(de)解放战(zhan)争全面(mian)进入战(zhan)略反攻阶段(duan)。从东(dong)北开始,许多大城(cheng)市(shi)(shi)纷纷解放。在"发(fa)展(zhan)经济(ji),保障供给(ji)"的(de)财政工作总方针指导下,保险(xian)(xian)(xian)业(ye)也逐渐得(de)到恢复(fu)和发(fa)展(zhan)。由(you)于特殊(shu)的(de)股东(dong)背景和较(jiao)强(qiang)的(de)市(shi)(shi)场影响力,在被解放的(de)城(cheng)市(shi)(shi)中(zhong),中(zhong)国产物保险(xian)(xian)(xian)公司(si)既首当(dang)其冲,成为被接管的(de)对象,又是率先复(fu)业(ye)、带动保险(xian)(xian)(xian)经营恢复(fu)正常的(de)先锋。1949年1月、2月和4月,天津、北平和武汉等大城(cheng)市(shi)(shi)解放后,中(zhong)国产物保险(xian)(xian)(xian)公司(si)在当(dang)地的(de)分(fen)公司(si)都(dou)被接管。随后,中(zhong)国人民银(yin)行决定(ding),以(yi)该公司(si)的(de)当(dang)地机构为基础,先行恢复(fu)保险(xian)(xian)(xian)业(ye)务,并(bing)拨付资金(jin)作为赔款(kuan)责(ze)任(ren)准备(bei)金(jin)。

1949年5月27日,上(shang)(shang)海解(jie)放,翌日即成(cheng)立了上(shang)(shang)海市军事(shi)管制委(wei)(wei)员(yuan)会。该委(wei)(wei)员(yuan)会下属的(de)财政经济接(jie)管委(wei)(wei)员(yuan)会金融(rong)处设立了保(bao)险(xian)组(zu),负责队官(guan)僚保(bao)险(xian)机构的(de)接(jie)管或(huo)监理工(gong)(gong)作,负责人为谢寿天。5月30日起,该处保(bao)险(xian)组(zu)按照"依照系(xi)统、原封(feng)不动、从上(shang)(shang)而下、整套接(jie)收"的(de)方针进行工(gong)(gong)作。

  民安保险公司——红色保险资本的摇篮  

一、民安产物保险(xian)股份(fen)有限公司(si)的诞生

民(min)(min)安产物(wu)保(bao)(bao)险(xian)股(gu)份(fen)(fen)有限公(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)司(si)(si)的(de)(de)创(chuang)始(shi)人(ren)卢(lu)绪章(zhang)是原外经贸部常务(wu)副部长,也是中(zhong)国对外贸易(yi)事业(ye)(ye)开(kai)拓(tuo)和(he)奠基人(ren)之一。早于三十(shi)年(nian)代,创(chuang)建了 "广大华(hua)行",以(yi)(yi)进行药品和(he)医疗器械的(de)(de)邮购(gou)业(ye)(ye)务(wu)。1943年(nian)初,卢(lu)绪章(zhang)为进一步(bu)提(ti)高广大华(hua)行的(de)(de)实力和(he)社(she)会地位,构(gou)思创(chuang)办一家保(bao)(bao)险(xian)公(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)司(si)(si), 得到(dao)周(zhou)恩来的(de)(de)肯(ken)定,卢(lu)绪章(zhang)以(yi)(yi)广大华(hua)行总经理身(shen)份(fen)(fen),在(zai)重(zhong)庆(qing)(qing)开(kai)始(shi)筹建保(bao)(bao)险(xian)公(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)司(si)(si)。卢(lu)绪章(zhang)找来当时在(zai)重(zhong)庆(qing)(qing)最著名的(de)(de)保(bao)(bao)险(xian)业(ye)(ye)专家、重(zhong)庆(qing)(qing)中(zhong)兴保(bao)(bao)险(xian)公(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)司(si)(si)总经理、豪彩(cai)vip公(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)司(si)(si)重(zhong)庆(qing)(qing)分公(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)司(si)(si)副经理杨经才先生(sheng)和(he)民(min)(min)生(sheng)轮船(chuan)创(chuang)办人(ren)、国民(min)(min)政府(fu)交通部部长卢(lu)作(zuo)孚先生(sheng),共同推(tui)动(dong)创(chuang)办保(bao)(bao)险(xian)公(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)司(si)(si)的(de)(de)理念。

卢绪(xu)章和(he)卢作(zuo)(zuo)孚于1943年(nian)秋(qiu)达成了(le)协议,合作(zuo)(zuo)创办(ban)了(le)民(min)(min)(min)(min)安(an)产物保(bao)(bao)(bao)(bao)险(xian)股(gu)份有限公(gong)司(si)(si)。以卢绪(xu)章代表(biao)广大(da)华(hua)行(xing)为(wei)一(yi)方,以卢作(zuo)(zuo)孚代表(biao)民(min)(min)(min)(min)生(sheng)实业(ye)公(gong)司(si)(si)为(wei)另(ling)一(yi)方,双(shuang)方各筹资一(yi)半,共(gong)同投资1,000万元建立"民(min)(min)(min)(min)安(an)产物保(bao)(bao)(bao)(bao)险(xian)股(gu)份有限公(gong)司(si)(si)"(简称(cheng)"民(min)(min)(min)(min)安(an)产物保(bao)(bao)(bao)(bao)险(xian)"),于1943年(nian)11月正式(shi)开业(ye)。当时民(min)(min)(min)(min)安(an)产物保(bao)(bao)(bao)(bao)险(xian)由卢作(zuo)(zuo)孚任董(dong)事长,杨(yang)经才任总(zong)经理,卢绪(xu)章任副总(zong)经理,杨(yang)延修、舒自(zi)清和(he)张平分分别任常务董(dong)事和(he)董(dong)监,杨(yang)延修还(hai)兼任民(min)(min)(min)(min)安(an)产物保(bao)(bao)(bao)(bao)险(xian)昆明分公(gong)司(si)(si)经理。民(min)(min)(min)(min)安(an)产物保(bao)(bao)(bao)(bao)险(xian)的创立,标志着广大(da)华(hua)行(xing)和(he)民(min)(min)(min)(min)生(sheng)实业(ye)公(gong)司(si)(si)跻(ji)身金融(rong)界行(xing)列,扩大(da)了(le)经营活(huo)动领域。

民安(an)产(chan)物(wu)保险开业(ye)后,保险业(ye)务发展蒸蒸日上。不久,内(nei)江分公司(si)、昆(kun)明分公司(si)及成都(dou)、贵阳、西安(an)、自(zi)贡、盐都(dou)、泸州、宜(yi)宾等(deng)地(di)均建(jian)立分支代理机构,民安(an)产(chan)物(wu)保险很快成为西南大后方保险界的一支新秀。

1944年(nian)(nian)12月(yue),总经理杨(yang)经才不幸病(bing)逝。1945年(nian)(nian)5月(yue),卢绪章接任(ren)民(min)安(an)(an)产物保险总经理职(zhi)务(wu),随着(zhe)广大(da)华行(xing)(xing)迁(qian)回上海以(yi)后,民(min)安(an)(an)产物保险、民(min)孚企(qi)业(ye)(ye)公(gong)司(si)、民(min)益(yi)(yi)公(gong)司(si)等数十家企(qi)业(ye)(ye)进(jin)行(xing)(xing)了参股投资。至(zhi)此,广大(da)华行(xing)(xing)和民(min)安(an)(an)产物保险公(gong)司(si)、民(min)孚企(qi)业(ye)(ye)公(gong)司(si)、民(min)益(yi)(yi)公(gong)司(si)先后在上海、昆明(ming)、西安(an)(an)、兰(lan)州(zhou)、北平、天津、青岛(dao)、沈阳(yang)、贵(gui)阳(yang)、成都、重庆、汉(han)口、广州(zhou)、香港等地(di)设(she)立了分支机构或附(fu)属企(qi)业(ye)(ye),进(jin)一步(bu)扩展业(ye)(ye)务(wu),覆盖全国各(ge)地(di)。

二、香港民安保险有限公司的成(cheng)立

1947年,上海经济(ji)和(he)金(jin)融市场萧条,各(ge)行各(ge)业一片凄冷(leng),企(qi)业资(zi)金(jin)转移香港(gang)是(shi)(shi)活(huo)路,于是(shi)(shi),民安产物(wu)保险上海总公司特派专员沈日昌(chang)先生到香港(gang)筹设分公司。

沈日昌(chang)早(zao)于1941至1945年,在四(si)川重庆积极参与抗日时(shi)期的后方(fang)保(bao)(bao)(bao)险(xian)建设,曾(ceng)任豪(hao)彩(cai)vip股(gu)份(fen)有限公(gong)司(si)与安(an)平保(bao)(bao)(bao)险(xian)及丰盛保(bao)(bao)(bao)险(xian)合(he)署(shu)经营的"太安(an)丰保(bao)(bao)(bao)险(xian)总(zong)公(gong)司(si)"稽核、重庆市分公(gong)司(si)副(fu)经理等(deng)职务(wu),并被选为重庆市保(bao)(bao)(bao)险(xian)工会委(wei)员,1946年任职豪(hao)彩(cai)vip股(gu)份(fen)有限公(gong)司(si)稽核室。

1947年,沈(shen)日(ri)昌只身来(lai)到(dao)香港,于同年2月(yue),开办了(le)民安产物保(bao)险香港分(fen)公司,沈(shen)日(ri)昌任副总经理(li),职工只有二人,由于经营条件异(yi)常艰(jian)苦,沈(shen)日(ri)昌兼负决策人、工作人员、承(cheng)保(bao)员、出单员和(he)分(fen)保(bao)记账,事(shi)无大小(xiao),必亲力亲为,每天工作长达(da)十几个(ge)小(xiao)时,终使香港分(fen)公司的业务达(da)至(zhi)基(ji)础阶段。

1949年,民安(an)(an)产物(wu)保(bao)(bao)(bao)(bao)险(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)及其香(xiang)港(gang)(gang)(gang)(gang)(gang)分公(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)司(si)的(de)股(gu)权(quan)结构(gou)发生(sheng)(sheng)变动,决定办理(li)(li)结束。原民安(an)(an)产物(wu)保(bao)(bao)(bao)(bao)险(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)香(xiang)港(gang)(gang)(gang)(gang)(gang)分公(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)司(si)于同年9月(yue)在(zai)香(xiang)港(gang)(gang)(gang)(gang)(gang)注册改组(zu)为独立法(fa)人"香(xiang)港(gang)(gang)(gang)(gang)(gang)民安(an)(an)保(bao)(bao)(bao)(bao)险(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)有限公(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)司(si)"(简称"民安(an)(an)保(bao)(bao)(bao)(bao)险(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)"),注册资(zi)本一百万港(gang)(gang)(gang)(gang)(gang)元,实(shi)收资(zi)本五十万。就此,民安(an)(an)保(bao)(bao)(bao)(bao)险(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)成为了中(zhong)国(guo)(guo)第一家在(zai)香(xiang)港(gang)(gang)(gang)(gang)(gang)注册的(de)民族资(zi)本保(bao)(bao)(bao)(bao)险(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)公(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)司(si)。首(shou)任(ren)董事长(zhang)为梁次鱼(yu)先(xian)生(sheng)(sheng),石(shi)景彦(yan)先(xian)生(sheng)(sheng)任(ren)总经理(li)(li),沈日昌先(xian)生(sheng)(sheng)任(ren)经理(li)(li),并聘用原民安(an)(an)产物(wu)保(bao)(bao)(bao)(bao)险(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)香(xiang)港(gang)(gang)(gang)(gang)(gang)分公(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)司(si)职工及接管有关(guan)保(bao)(bao)(bao)(bao)险(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)业(ye)务(wu)。1949年10月(yue)1日,新中(zhong)国(guo)(guo)成立之日,民安(an)(an)保(bao)(bao)(bao)(bao)险(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)在(zai)华(hua)人行租用办公(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)室,挂起(qi)了鲜艳(yan)的(de)五星红旗(qi),为新中(zhong)国(guo)(guo)的(de)成立欢呼,为民安(an)(an)保(bao)(bao)(bao)(bao)险(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)的(de)开(kai)(kai)业(ye)志(zhi)庆。从此,香(xiang)港(gang)(gang)(gang)(gang)(gang)民安(an)(an)保(bao)(bao)(bao)(bao)险(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)公(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)司(si)在(zai)香(xiang)港(gang)(gang)(gang)(gang)(gang)的(de)悠长(zhang)历史正式展开(kai)(kai)。

  改组和海外专营时期(1949-1979年)  

新(xin)中国(guo)成立后(hou),开展了对旧中国(guo)保(bao)险(xian)业(ye)(ye)的公(gong)私合营(ying)改(gai)造(zao)。1951年(nian)(nian)"中国(guo)保(bao)险(xian)"和(he)(he)"豪(hao)彩(cai)vip"完成公(gong)私合营(ying)改(gai)造(zao)。1956年(nian)(nian),豪(hao)彩(cai)vip与新(xin)丰保(bao)险(xian)合并。同(tong)年(nian)(nian),"中国(guo)保(bao)险(xian)"和(he)(he)"豪(hao)彩(cai)vip"相(xiang)继(ji)由上(shang)海迁册北京,成为(wei)原中国(guo)人民保(bao)险(xian)公(gong)司(si)的附属公(gong)司(si)。期(qi)间(jian),根据国(guo)家(jia)统一安(an)排(pai),"中国(guo)保(bao)险(xian)"和(he)(he)"豪(hao)彩(cai)vip"停办国(guo)内业(ye)(ye)务,和(he)(he)"香港民安(an)"一起,专门(men)经营(ying)境外业(ye)(ye)务,继(ji)续为(wei)港澳同(tong)胞(bao)和(he)(he)海外侨胞(bao)服务,为(wei)国(guo)家(jia)积累外汇资金。

新(xin)中(zhong)国(guo)(guo)(guo)保(bao)(bao)险事业(ye)的(de)创建(jian),经历了(le)一(yi)个较(jiao)长时期的(de)过程。为了(le)使保(bao)(bao)险更好地为国(guo)(guo)(guo)民经济恢复和(he)发(fa)展服务(wu),经中(zhong)央批准成(cheng)立了(le)统(tong)一(yi)的(de)国(guo)(guo)(guo)家(jia)保(bao)(bao)险机构——中(zhong)国(guo)(guo)(guo)人民保(bao)(bao)险公司(si)。中(zhong)国(guo)(guo)(guo)保(bao)(bao)险公司(si)由此完成(cheng)了(le)向国(guo)(guo)(guo)家(jia)专营外(wai)币业(ye)务(wu)的(de)专业(ye)化公司(si)的(de)转变。太平、新(xin)丰保(bao)(bao)险公司(si)合并(bing),成(cheng)立公私合营豪彩vip公司(si),并(bing)停办国(guo)(guo)(guo)内业(ye)务(wu),在中(zhong)国(guo)(guo)(guo)人民保(bao)(bao)险公司(si)统(tong)一(yi)领导下专营海外(wai)业(ye)务(wu)。

一、中国(guo)保险公(gong)司(si)的接管和复(fu)业

解(jie)放(fang)前,上(shang)海(hai)(hai)原是(shi)全(quan)国保(bao)险(xian)业中心,官(guan)僚(liao)资本(ben)(ben)保(bao)险(xian)公司(si)的(de)(de)(de)(de)集中地(di),主要(yao)是(shi)中国银行、中央信托(tuo)局、交通银行、中国农民银行等"四大家族"所属的(de)(de)(de)(de)保(bao)险(xian)机构。此外还(hai)有(you)其他一些(xie)官(guan)僚(liao)资本(ben)(ben)的(de)(de)(de)(de)保(bao)险(xian)公司(si)。搞好上(shang)海(hai)(hai)的(de)(de)(de)(de)官(guan)僚(liao)资本(ben)(ben)保(bao)险(xian)总公司(si)或总管(guan)(guan)理处(chu)等的(de)(de)(de)(de)接(jie)(jie)(jie)管(guan)(guan)工(gong)作,对分布在(zai)其他城市(shi)分支机构的(de)(de)(de)(de)接(jie)(jie)(jie)管(guan)(guan)具有(you)很大影响。1949年5月(yue)27日(ri),上(shang)海(hai)(hai)解(jie)放(fang)。28日(ri),中国人民解(jie)放(fang)军军事管(guan)(guan)制(zhi)委员(yuan)财政经济接(jie)(jie)(jie)管(guan)(guan)委员(yuan)会金融处(chu)保(bao)险(xian)组(zu)(zu)10多位成员(yuan),在(zai)副处(chu)长(zhang)谢(xie)寿天、保(bao)险(xian)组(zu)(zu)长(zhang)林震峰,保(bao)险(xian)组(zu)(zu)副组(zu)(zu)长(zhang)孙文敏(min)的(de)(de)(de)(de)领导(dao)下(xia),根据党的(de)(de)(de)(de)政策和上(shang)海(hai)(hai)市(shi)军事管(guan)(guan)制(zhi)委员(yuan)会确定的(de)(de)(de)(de)"依(yi)照系(xi)统、原封不动、从上(shang)而下(xia),整套(tao)接(jie)(jie)(jie)受"的(de)(de)(de)(de)方针,开展(zhan)接(jie)(jie)(jie)管(guan)(guan)官(guan)僚(liao)资本(ben)(ben)保(bao)险(xian)公司(si)的(de)(de)(de)(de)工(gong)作。接(jie)(jie)(jie)管(guan)(guan)清理工(gong)作于同(tong)年10月(yue)23日(ri)基本(ben)(ben)结(jie)束。

鉴于恢(hui)复(fu)(fu)国(guo)(guo)营保(bao)(bao)(bao)险业(ye)(ye)务和(he)处(chu)理国(guo)(guo)内外(wai)分(fen)(fen)保(bao)(bao)(bao)问题急待(dai)解决(jue),决(jue)定批(pi)准中国(guo)(guo)产(chan)物(wu)保(bao)(bao)(bao)险公司(si)复(fu)(fu)业(ye)(ye)。中国(guo)(guo)产(chan)物(wu)保(bao)(bao)(bao)险为配合(he)保(bao)(bao)(bao)险同业(ye)(ye)解决(jue)分(fen)(fen)保(bao)(bao)(bao)困难,曾(ceng)对华商民(min)营保(bao)(bao)(bao)险公司(si)组(zu)织联合(he)分(fen)(fen)保(bao)(bao)(bao)机构和(he)接(jie)受分(fen)(fen)保(bao)(bao)(bao)给予(yu)了大力支持(chi)。

上海解放初期,中国(guo)产(chan)物保(bao)险(xian)公(gong)司为配合人民政(zheng)府(fu)反封锁、反轰(hong)炸政(zheng)策,适时(shi)开办了运(yun)输兵(bing)险(xian)、航业(ye)员(yuan)工兵(bing)险(xian)和(he)小额船(chuan)壳兵(bing)险(xian)3项政(zheng)策性(xing)的新业(ye)务(wu)。这对促进(jin)内外、南(nan)北物资交流、支(zhi)持国(guo)民经(jing)济的恢(hui)复,发(fa)挥了积极的作用。

二、中国保险公司的改组

1、中(zhong)国(guo)(guo)保险公司(si)(si)专营(ying)外汇(hui)保险。1949年8月(yue),上海(hai)财经会议以原(yuan)中(zhong)国(guo)(guo)产物(wu)保险公司(si)(si)为基础专设中(zhong)国(guo)(guo)保险公司(si)(si),进行国(guo)(guo)际贸易有(you)关(guan)的外汇(hui)保险。中(zhong)国(guo)(guo)保险公司(si)(si)在上海(hai)已有(you)机构,由华东区(qu)行负责(ze)整顿改组。

2、中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)保(bao)(bao)(bao)(bao)险(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)公(gong)(gong)司的任(ren)务(wu)。第一次全国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)保(bao)(bao)(bao)(bao)险(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)工作(zuo)会(hui)议(yi)(yi)期间(jian),中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)保(bao)(bao)(bao)(bao)险(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)公(gong)(gong)司将原(yuan)(yuan)中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)产物保(bao)(bao)(bao)(bao)险(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)公(gong)(gong)司总管理(li)处加(jia)以(yi)调整,并将原(yuan)(yuan)中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)人(ren)寿保(bao)(bao)(bao)(bao)险(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)公(gong)(gong)司并入,规定(ding)其任(ren)务(wu)为(wei):(1)专门从(cong)事(shi)外币(bi)保(bao)(bao)(bao)(bao)险(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)业(ye)务(wu);(2)争取国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)外保(bao)(bao)(bao)(bao)险(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)业(ye)务(wu);(3)国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)外保(bao)(bao)(bao)(bao)险(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)关系(xi)的联系(xi)与建(jian)立(li);(4)接受国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)内溢(yi)额保(bao)(bao)(bao)(bao)险(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)业(ye)务(wu)。会(hui)议(yi)(yi)结(jie)束后,以(yi)原(yuan)(yuan)北京中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)产物保(bao)(bao)(bao)(bao)险(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)公(gong)(gong)司为(wei)基础,建(jian)立(li)了中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)人(ren)民保(bao)(bao)(bao)(bao)险(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)总公(gong)(gong)司营业(ye)部。

3、中(zhong)国保(bao)险公(gong)(gong)司(si)第一(yi)届(jie)董(dong)监事会(hui)议。中(zhong)国保(bao)险公(gong)(gong)司(si)在(zai)召开第一(yi)届(jie)董(dong)监会(hui)议前,以宋(song)汉(han)章为董(dong)事长,过(guo)福云(yun)为总经(jing)理、陈伯源、孙广志为副(fu)经(jing)理,其总公(gong)(gong)司(si)设在(zai)上海(hai)。国外分保(bao)由(you)中(zhong)国保(bao)险公(gong)(gong)司(si)统一(yi)对(dui)外,使(shi)得国营公(gong)(gong)司(si)有(you)较强的再(zai)保(bao)险能(neng)力。

三、港澳和(he)海外保(bao)险业务的发展

在中国人民保(bao)(bao)(bao)险(xian)公(gong)(gong)司领(ling)导和(he)支(zhi)持下,中国保(bao)(bao)(bao)险(xian)公(gong)(gong)司、豪彩vip公(gong)(gong)司和(he)香港民安保(bao)(bao)(bao)险(xian)公(gong)(gong)司的(de)(de)业务(wu)(wu)(wu)在解放后(hou)有很大发展。在为进出口贸易服务(wu)(wu)(wu)、为当(dang)地华(hua)侨服务(wu)(wu)(wu)的(de)(de)业务(wu)(wu)(wu)方针指导下,上述3个公(gong)(gong)司在香港及海外(wai)的(de)(de)分(fen)支(zhi)机构认真办理(li)各项(xiang)保(bao)(bao)(bao)险(xian)业务(wu)(wu)(wu),并严格(ge)遵守当(dang)地政(zheng)府法令和(he)当(dang)地保(bao)(bao)(bao)险(xian)公(gong)(gong)会的(de)(de)各项(xiang)规(gui)章,积极增加(jia)为当(dang)地华(hua)侨服务(wu)(wu)(wu)的(de)(de)保(bao)(bao)(bao)险(xian)业务(wu)(wu)(wu)种类。对(dui)保(bao)(bao)(bao)障当(dang)地华(hua)侨及促进当(dang)地工商业的(de)(de)发展起了一定(ding)的(de)(de)作用。

香港和海(hai)外(wai)(wai)(wai)保险业务,在(zai)中(zhong)国(guo)(guo)人(ren)民(min)银(yin)行(xing)总行(xing)的(de)统一(yi)领导下,逐步(bu)纳入了(le)国(guo)(guo)家统一(yi)管理的(de)轨道。海(hai)外(wai)(wai)(wai)保险业务在(zai)政治形(xing)势十分(fen)复杂的(de)情(qing)况下获得了(le)稳步(bu)发展,为(wei)了(le)支(zhi)援(yuan)国(guo)(guo)内建设,海(hai)外(wai)(wai)(wai)各地保险机构积极设法筹集资(zi)金汇回(hui)国(guo)(guo)内,自全国(guo)(guo)解放至1953年11月,仅中(zhong)国(guo)(guo)保险公(gong)司从海(hai)外(wai)(wai)(wai)调回(hui)的(de)资(zi)金便有港币(bi)680多(duo)万元,为(wei)国(guo)(guo)民(min)经(jing)济(ji)恢复做(zuo)出了(le)贡(gong)献。

为了配(pei)合(he)祖国贸易需要,在香(xiang)港的(de)中国保(bao)(bao)险(xian)、豪彩vip、民(min)安(an)保(bao)(bao)险(xian)为客户(hu)办理转单手(shou)续(xu),以(yi)及为国内的(de)转口商(shang)品提供了保(bao)(bao)险(xian)方(fang)面的(de)方(fang)便。此外,香(xiang)港和新马地区机构还代理国内出(chu)口商(shang)品保(bao)(bao)险(xian)的(de)查(cha)勘理赔(pei)工作(zuo)。

海外保险业(ye)务在(zai)为(wei)华侨服(fu)务、为(wei)国(guo)(guo)家(jia)对外贸(mao)易服(fu)务、为(wei)国(guo)(guo)家(jia)建设(she)积累资(zi)(zi)金(jin)和争取长期存在(zai)的方针指导下也得到(dao)了(le)(le)很大的发展。当时中国(guo)(guo)保险公司和豪彩vip公司在(zai)香港、新加坡、马来西亚(ya)和印度(du)尼西亚(ya)都设(she)有分支机(ji)构。截至1960年,这些机(ji)构汇入(ru)国(guo)(guo)内(nei)的资(zi)(zi)金(jin)合计(ji)90854万美元(yuan),有力(li)地支援了(le)(le)国(guo)(guo)内(nei)社会主义(yi)建设(she)事业(ye)。

1966年(nian),"文化大革(ge)命"爆发,涉外保(bao)险(xian)(xian)业(ye)务遭(zao)到了严重(zhong)的干扰和(he)(he)破坏(huai)。1969年(nian)上半年(nian),外贸部门先后从国(guo)外进(jin)口手表和(he)(he)白金在(zai)(zai)空(kong)运中发生(sheng)丢(diu)失。周恩(en)来总理指(zhi)示:"保(bao)险(xian)(xian)还(hai)是要办,保(bao)险(xian)(xian)是对外联系的一个(ge)渠道,敌人(ren)想(xiang)孤立(li)我(wo)们(men),我(wo)们(men)不要自(zi)(zi)己孤立(li)自(zi)(zi)己。" 进(jin)口手表和(he)(he)白金丢(diu)失事(shi)件,成为中国(guo)保(bao)险(xian)(xian)业(ye)在(zai)(zai)困境(jing)中恢复的契机(ji)。1970年(nian)6月,涉外保(bao)险(xian)(xian)和(he)(he)国(guo)际再保(bao)险(xian)(xian)活动重(zhong)又开展。70年(nian)代末期,国(guo)内经济(ji)建(jian)设速(su)度加(jia)快,民安保(bao)险(xian)(xian)业(ye)务因(yin)此受益,毛保(bao)费年(nian)收入达到5000万港元。

  境外扩展时期(1980-1997年)  

1979年(nian)4月,国(guo)(guo)务院决(jue)定"逐步恢复(fu)国(guo)(guo)内保险业务",海外(wai)保险也(ye)迎来了(le)发展机遇。截(jie)至1990年(nian)底,我国(guo)(guo)海外(wai)各类保险机构发展到(dao)了(le)60多家。1992年(nian),香(xiang)港(gang)中国(guo)(guo)保险(集(ji)团(tuan))有(you)限公(gong)司(si)成立,作为港(gang)澳地区的控股公(gong)司(si),对(dui)港(gang)澳地区附(fu)属(shu)公(gong)司(si)进(jin)行统(tong)一管理。集(ji)团(tuan)近半子公(gong)司(si)于此间创(chuang)办,集(ji)团(tuan)经营领域(yu)进(jin)一步扩展。

一、保(bao)险驻港澳联办处的成立

1981年(nian)在港澳银行体制改革中,明(ming)确港澳保险公(gong)司(si)(si)的(de)领(ling)导(dao)体制,仍设立保险驻港澳联(lian)办处,由银行集团(tuan)的(de)主(zhu)(zhu)要负(fu)责人兼(jian)保险联(lian)办处主(zhu)(zhu)任,保险联(lian)办处设专职副主(zhu)(zhu)任一人,由中国人民保险总公(gong)司(si)(si)选派,负(fu)责日常(chang)工作。

二(er)、中国保险港澳管理(li)处成立

1984年,中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)国(guo)人(ren)民保(bao)险(xian)(xian)公司于(yu)1月起(qi)(qi)从中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)国(guo)人(ren)民银行分设出来,成(cheng)(cheng)为(wei)国(guo)务院(yuan)直(zhi)属机(ji)(ji)构。同年10月7日成(cheng)(cheng)立(li)中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)国(guo)保(bao)险(xian)(xian)港澳管(guan)(guan)理(li)(li)(li)处(chu)(chu),管(guan)(guan)理(li)(li)(li)处(chu)(chu)职(zhi)能为(wei)中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)国(guo)人(ren)民保(bao)险(xian)(xian)公司派(pai)驻香港的(de)行政管(guan)(guan)理(li)(li)(li)机(ji)(ji)构。成(cheng)(cheng)为(wei)与中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)国(guo)银行港澳管(guan)(guan)理(li)(li)(li)处(chu)(chu)平行的(de)机(ji)(ji)构,中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)国(guo)保(bao)险(xian)(xian)港澳管(guan)(guan)理(li)(li)(li)处(chu)(chu)的(de)正式独立(li)成(cheng)(cheng)立(li),意义(yi)重大,当时香港保(bao)险(xian)(xian)界和舆论界把中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)国(guo)保(bao)险(xian)(xian)集团视为(wei)一支(zhi)"新崛起(qi)(qi)的(de)力量。"

三(san)、香港中国保险(集团(tuan))有限(xian)公(gong)司的(de)成(cheng)立

1992年(nian),中国(guo)(guo)人民(min)保(bao)(bao)(bao)险(xian)(xian)公(gong)司(si)(si)决定(ding)将非法(fa)人团(tuan)体的(de)(de)中国(guo)(guo)保(bao)(bao)(bao)险(xian)(xian)港(gang)(gang)澳(ao)(ao)管(guan)理处改组为企业法(fa)人。同年(nian)10月20日(ri),由中国(guo)(guo)人民(min)保(bao)(bao)(bao)险(xian)(xian)公(gong)司(si)(si)、中国(guo)(guo)保(bao)(bao)(bao)险(xian)(xian)有限(xian)公(gong)司(si)(si)、豪(hao)彩vip有限(xian)公(gong)司(si)(si)和中国(guo)(guo)人寿保(bao)(bao)(bao)险(xian)(xian)有限(xian)公(gong)司(si)(si)合资组建的(de)(de)香(xiang)(xiang)港(gang)(gang)中国(guo)(guo)保(bao)(bao)(bao)险(xian)(xian)(集团(tuan))有限(xian)公(gong)司(si)(si)在香(xiang)(xiang)港(gang)(gang)注册成立,并(bing)取(qu)代中国(guo)(guo)保(bao)(bao)(bao)险(xian)(xian)港(gang)(gang)澳(ao)(ao)管(guan)理处,以法(fa)人身份行(xing)使对港(gang)(gang)澳(ao)(ao)地区各公(gong)司(si)(si)的(de)(de)管(guan)理职权和自行(xing)经营除(chu)保(bao)(bao)(bao)险(xian)(xian)业务之外的(de)(de)多(duo)项业务。

  集团化经营时期(1998-2009年)  

1998年10月,经(jing)国(guo)(guo)务(wu)院(yuan)(yuan)批准,中国(guo)(guo)人民保(bao)险(xian)(xian)(集(ji)(ji)团(tuan))公(gong)司(si)(si)撤销(xiao),海外(wai)机(ji)构(gou)划归中国(guo)(guo)保(bao)险(xian)(xian)股(gu)份有(you)限公(gong)司(si)(si),该(gai)公(gong)司(si)(si)与香港中国(guo)(guo)保(bao)险(xian)(xian)(集(ji)(ji)团(tuan))有(you)限公(gong)司(si)(si)(合(he)称中国(guo)(guo)保(bao)险(xian)(xian)集(ji)(ji)团(tuan))实行"两块(kuai)牌(pai)子,一套班(ban)子"的管理模(mo)式。成为境外(wai)机(ji)构(gou)的最终控股(gu)公(gong)司(si)(si)和(he)直属(shu)国(guo)(guo)务(wu)院(yuan)(yuan)的金融保(bao)险(xian)(xian)集(ji)(ji)团(tuan)。集(ji)(ji)团(tuan)化经(jing)营拉开帷(wei)幕。2002年8月22日,中国(guo)(guo)保(bao)险(xian)(xian)股(gu)份有(you)限公(gong)司(si)(si)更名为中国(guo)(guo)保(bao)险(xian)(xian)(控股(gu))有(you)限公(gong)司(si)(si)。

为完(wan)善集团(tuan)化(hua)经(jing)营框(kuang)架,推进(jin)本土化(hua)战略,从2000年(nian)到(dao)2003年(nian),集团(tuan)从业务(wu)结构(gou)调整和重组(zu)改(gai)制两个方(fang)面对部(bu)分机(ji)构(gou)进(jin)行了改(gai)革整顿。

一、2000-2003年境外业务(wu)的改(gai)革整顿(dun)

(一)香(xiang)港(gang)地区产险机构的改革整(zheng)顿

2000年将(jiang)中国保险(xian)香(xiang)(xiang)港分公(gong)司(si)(si)、豪彩vip香(xiang)(xiang)港分公(gong)司(si)(si)的业(ye)务(wu)并(bing)入香(xiang)(xiang)港民安(an)保险(xian)有限公(gong)司(si)(si),组成(cheng)一家(jia)更具(ju)规模的保险(xian)公(gong)司(si)(si),同年10月三间公(gong)司(si)(si)正式(shi)完成(cheng)重组,组成(cheng)新的香(xiang)(xiang)港民安(an)保险(xian)有限公(gong)司(si)(si)。新的香(xiang)(xiang)港民安(an)组建后加大了业(ye)务(wu)管理(li)力度,对业(ye)务(wu)结构进行了大力调整。

(二)澳门地区产险机构的改革整顿

2003年1月(yue)3日,中(zhong)国(guo)保险(xian)股份有限公司(si)澳(ao)门(men)(men)分(fen)公司(si)正式(shi)改组为在澳(ao)注册的(de)中(zhong)国(guo)保险(xian)(澳(ao)门(men)(men))股份有限公司(si),成为澳(ao)门(men)(men)当地公司(si)。此举标志(zhi)着中(zhong)国(guo)保险(xian)(控股)有限公司(si)的(de)境外业务全面实施扎(zha)根本(ben)土(tu)、走向全球(qiu)的(de)经营战略。

(三)新加坡地(di)区产险业务的改(gai)革整顿

中(zhong)国(guo)保(bao)险(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)有(you)(you)限公(gong)(gong)(gong)司(si)(si)(si)(si)新(xin)(xin)(xin)加(jia)坡分(fen)公(gong)(gong)(gong)司(si)(si)(si)(si)与豪(hao)(hao)彩(cai)vip有(you)(you)限公(gong)(gong)(gong)司(si)(si)(si)(si)新(xin)(xin)(xin)加(jia)坡分(fen)公(gong)(gong)(gong)司(si)(si)(si)(si)顺利完成(cheng)机(ji)构(gou)重组(zu),在接受了豪(hao)(hao)彩(cai)vip有(you)(you)限公(gong)(gong)(gong)司(si)(si)(si)(si)新(xin)(xin)(xin)加(jia)坡分(fen)公(gong)(gong)(gong)司(si)(si)(si)(si)的所有(you)(you)资产和保(bao)险(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)责任后(hou)(hou),以中(zhong)国(guo)保(bao)险(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)有(you)(you)限公(gong)(gong)(gong)司(si)(si)(si)(si)新(xin)(xin)(xin)加(jia)坡分(fen)公(gong)(gong)(gong)司(si)(si)(si)(si)的名义对(dui)外(wai)(wai)营业。其后(hou)(hou),集(ji)团继续(xu)对(dui)合并后(hou)(hou)的中(zhong)保(bao)新(xin)(xin)(xin)分(fen)实(shi)行了子公(gong)(gong)(gong)司(si)(si)(si)(si)化改制(zhi)。2003年1月1日中(zhong)国(guo)保(bao)险(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(新(xin)(xin)(xin)加(jia)坡)有(you)(you)限公(gong)(gong)(gong)司(si)(si)(si)(si)正式(shi)对(dui)外(wai)(wai)营业。

(四(si))欧洲地区产(chan)险机构的(de)改革整顿

2002年(nian),集团(tuan)对欧洲(zhou)(zhou)地(di)区公司(si)(si)进(jin)行(xing)战略(lve)重(zhong)组(zu):一是(shi)(shi)(shi)关(guan)(guan)闭中(zhong)(zhong)保德国(guo);二是(shi)(shi)(shi)关(guan)(guan)闭中(zhong)(zhong)保欧洲(zhou)(zhou)服务;三是(shi)(shi)(shi)对中(zhong)(zhong)保卢森堡进(jin)行(xing)分公司(si)(si)化改造(zao),并将(jiang)其业务转(zhuan)让(rang)中(zhong)(zhong)保英(ying)国(guo)后进(jin)行(xing)关(guan)(guan)闭;四(si)是(shi)(shi)(shi)待上(shang)述三项工(gong)作完成后,将(jiang)中(zhong)(zhong)保欧洲(zhou)(zhou)控股持有的中(zhong)(zhong)保英(ying)国(guo)的全部股权转(zhuan)让(rang)给香港中(zhong)(zhong)国(guo)保险(集团(tuan))有限公司(si)(si),将(jiang)中(zhong)(zhong)保英(ying)国(guo)改组(zu)为集团(tuan)的全资子(zi)公司(si)(si),并撤销中(zhong)(zhong)保欧洲(zhou)(zhou)控股。

(五)寿险业务(wu)的重(zhong)组合(he)并(bing)与转让

2002年6月(yue),太(tai)平人寿(shou)(shou)保(bao)险有(you)限公(gong)司(si)香港分(fen)(fen)公(gong)司(si)、中(zhong)(zhong)国(guo)人寿(shou)(shou)保(bao)险股(gu)(gu)份(fen)有(you)限公(gong)司(si)香港分(fen)(fen)公(gong)司(si)完(wan)成(cheng)重组,以(yi)中(zhong)(zhong)国(guo)人寿(shou)(shou)保(bao)险股(gu)(gu)份(fen)有(you)限公(gong)司(si)香港分(fen)(fen)公(gong)司(si)名义对外营业。之后,在保(bao)持中(zhong)(zhong)寿(shou)(shou)澳(ao)分(fen)(fen)牌子不变的前提(ti)下,内部将其具体营运工作转移到中(zhong)(zhong)寿(shou)(shou)港分(fen)(fen)集(ji)中(zhong)(zhong)管理和运作,2002年底,集(ji)团寿(shou)(shou)险业务的重组工作顺(shun)利完(wan)成(cheng)。

为配合中国(guo)人(ren)(ren)寿保(bao)险有限公(gong)司(si)上市工作,中国(guo)人(ren)(ren)寿保(bao)险股份(fen)有限公(gong)司(si)香港分公(gong)司(si)更名为中国(guo)人(ren)(ren)寿保(bao)险(海外)股份(fen)有限公(gong)司(si)。2003年(nian)底,股权转让工作全面完(wan)成。自此(ci),集团停止经营境外寿险业务。

(六)非金融(rong)资(zi)产的清理与中保集(ji)团投资(zi)控股有(you)限公司的成立

2000年(nian)12月27日,经过对集(ji)团(tuan)属下各(ge)类投资公司的重组,中保(bao)集(ji)团(tuan)投资控(kong)股有限公司在香港注(zhu)册成(cheng)立,公司在集(ji)团(tuan)统一规(gui)划和领导下,行使(shi)投资经营管理(li)职能。

(七)中保国(guo)际的上(shang)市

2000年(nian)上(shang)半年(nian)将集团(tuan)属下中国国际再保(bao)(bao)险(xian)(xian)有限公司和华(hua)夏(xia)再保(bao)(bao)险(xian)(xian)顾问有限公司重组(zu),成立了中保(bao)(bao)国际控股有限公司,并以此为主体,于6月底在香港联合交易所上(shang)市(shi)。集团(tuan)通过中保(bao)(bao)国际上(shang)市(shi),集资近5亿港元,并拥有61.9%的绝对控股权。成为中国保(bao)(bao)险(xian)(xian)业首家在境外上(shang)市(shi)的保(bao)(bao)险(xian)(xian)企业。

二、境内复业与集团发展重心的转移(yi)

2001年(nian)(nian)12月,豪(hao)彩(cai)vip和太平人寿在(zai)国内相继恢复(fu)(fu)业务经营(ying)。太平品牌在(zai)国内的复(fu)(fu)业,使全(quan)集(ji)(ji)团(tuan)(tuan)(tuan)的发展进入了(le)一(yi)个(ge)新(xin)的历史(shi)阶段。继豪(hao)彩(cai)vip、太平人寿之后(hou),2005年(nian)(nian),太平养老保险股份有限(xian)公(gong)司成立,2006年(nian)(nian),太平资产管理有限(xian)公(gong)司开业,加之2004年(nian)(nian)开业的民安(an)保险(中国)有限(xian)公(gong)司,一(yi)个(ge)全(quan)新(xin)跨国综合金融保险集(ji)(ji)团(tuan)(tuan)(tuan)已展现在(zai)世人面(mian)前。太平的复(fu)(fu)业使集(ji)(ji)团(tuan)(tuan)(tuan)发展驶入了(le)快车道,集(ji)(ji)团(tuan)(tuan)(tuan)业务规(gui)模迅(xun)速扩大,整体实力显著增强。内地也逐渐成为集(ji)(ji)团(tuan)(tuan)(tuan)发展的重心。

2006年6月(yue)(yue)30日(ri),香港民(min)安(an)(an)及香港中(zhong)保(bao)集团(tuan)分(fen)别与长江集团(tuan)、中(zhong)保(bao)国际签订了(le)股(gu)权(quan)(quan)转(zhuan)让(rang)协议。2006年9月(yue)(yue)5日(ri),民(min)安(an)(an)控股(gu)有限(xian)公(gong)司于开曼群(qun)岛注(zhu)册(ce)成立,香港民(min)安(an)(an)全部股(gu)权(quan)(quan)按现有股(gu)东持(chi)股(gu)比例注(zhu)入(ru)民(min)安(an)(an)控股(gu),并以(yi)民(min)安(an)(an)控股(gu)为上(shang)市主体。2006年12月(yue)(yue)22日(ri)民(min)安(an)(an)控股(gu)在香港联合(he)交(jiao)易所上(shang)市挂牌。

三、励精图(tu)治,迈向(xiang)新的里(li)程

作为跨国(guo)综(zong)合经(jing)(jing)营的(de)金融保(bao)险(xian)服务(wu)(wu)商(shang),中国(guo)豪(hao)彩vip集团经(jing)(jing)营区域已(yi)基本覆盖中国(guo)内(nei)地(di)(di)和港(gang)澳(ao)地(di)(di)区,同时在欧洲、大洋(yang)洲、东(dong)亚及(ji)东(dong)南亚等地(di)(di)区设有海外机构。中国(guo)太平(ping)所辖产(chan)业链横向(xiang)(xiang)兼(jian)容产(chan)险(xian)、寿险(xian)、养老保(bao)险(xian)及(ji)再保(bao)险(xian);纵向(xiang)(xiang)统筹保(bao)险(xian)顾(gu)问、经(jing)(jing)纪、代理、直销等业务(wu)(wu);并通过(guo)统一的(de)资(zi)产(chan)管(guan)理平(ping)台、统一的(de)共(gong)享服务(wu)(wu)和信息(xi)技术平(ping)台,实(shi)现价值管(guan)理的(de)优化组合,满足(zu)客(ke)户综(zong)合的(de)金融保(bao)险(xian)服务(wu)(wu)需(xu)求。

中国太平控股(gu)有(you)限公司(原中保国际)(HK0966)是(shi)中国保险业最(zui)早在(zai)境外上市的(de)公司。它整合了集团(tuan)旗(qi)下的(de)大部分资产,为集团(tuan)运作和(he)战略(lve)发(fa)展提供了坚实的(de)资本运作平台。

寿(shou)险(xian)业务是今(jin)日(ri)中国(guo)(guo)太平(ping)持续发展的战略支撑力量和持续利润来源(yuan)。太平(ping)人寿(shou)保(bao)险(xian)有(you)限公司自复(fu)业以来,连续6年获惠誉国(guo)(guo)际BBB+评级,以优质的品(pin)牌(pai)和规范(fan)的管理,成为中国(guo)(guo)寿(shou)险(xian)市场跨越式(shi)发展的创新典范(fan)。

中国太平的(de)财产(chan)险业务,依托国内(nei)(nei)外、海内(nei)(nei)外编织起来的(de)跨地(di)区、跨国际的(de)综合网(wang)络和(he)服务优势,内(nei)(nei)外联(lian)动,综合开拓,成(cheng)为(wei)集团产(chan)业链上最为(wei)强(qiang)大的(de)基础(chu)环节。

太(tai)平养老(lao)(lao)保(bao)险股份有(you)限公司是(shi)国(guo)内(nei)首批获得国(guo)家(jia)资格(ge)认定(ding)的专(zhuan)业(ye)养老(lao)(lao)保(bao)险公司,是(shi)中(zhong)国(guo)企业(ye)年金(jin)市场(chang)最为(wei)专(zhuan)业(ye)的受托人。

太平再保险有限公(gong)司在港经营30年,拥有稳固的(de)(de)市场(chang)地位,连续多年获得国(guo)际(ji)权威(wei)评级(ji)机(ji)构的(de)(de)A级(ji)评定。

太平再保险顾(gu)问公(gong)司(si)(si)和(he)太平证券控股(香港)有(you)限(xian)公(gong)司(si)(si)、豪彩(cai)vip服(fu)务(wu)(日本)有(you)限(xian)公(gong)司(si)(si)多年来经营稳健,为集团(tuan)提供(gong)了稳定的经纪(ji)业(ye)务(wu)收(shou)入,并不断(duan)拓宽业(ye)务(wu)领域(yu)。

由太平(ping)(ping)资(zi)产(chan)管(guan)(guan)(guan)理(li)[香港]有限公司和太平(ping)(ping)资(zi)产(chan)管(guan)(guan)(guan)理(li)有限公司共同搭建(jian)的(de)统一投资(zi)管(guan)(guan)(guan)理(li)平(ping)(ping)台,管(guan)(guan)(guan)理(li)资(zi)产(chan)规模已逾1000亿元(yuan)。中国太平(ping)(ping)的(de)保险资(zi)产(chan),正通过(guo)其专(zhuan)业化运作、强(qiang)大的(de)投资(zi)团队和严密的(de)风险控制(zhi)体系,不断提升整体投资(zi)收益,迅速壮大集团实力(li)。

2008年,中(zhong)国(guo)太平共享(xiang)服(fu)务(wu)中(zhong)心正式运(yun)行(xing)。太平共享(xiang)金(jin)融服(fu)务(wu)(上海)有限公司对全(quan)集(ji)团(tuan)(tuan)核保(bao)核赔、财务(wu)、IT等各类资源全(quan)面整合,以实现(xian)全(quan)集(ji)团(tuan)(tuan)保(bao)险运(yun)营服(fu)务(wu)集(ji)中(zhong)与金(jin)融信息数(shu)据处理集(ji)中(zhong)。而(er)与此同时,稽(ji)核中(zhong)心的(de)(de)建成和(he)全(quan)集(ji)团(tuan)(tuan)风险管理体系的(de)(de)不(bu)断完(wan)善,为集(ji)团(tuan)(tuan)的(de)(de)风险控制和(he)可持(chi)续发展提(ti)供了(le)坚实的(de)(de)保(bao)障(zhang)。

中(zhong)国太平(ping)(ping)以客户为(wei)中(zhong)心的(de)综(zong)合(he)金(jin)融(rong)服(fu)务平(ping)(ping)台框架(jia)已初步形成,在未来的(de)发展中(zhong),一个(ge)完整的(de)综(zong)合(he)金(jin)融(rong)服(fu)务模式(shi)可给(ji)个(ge)人(ren)客户和(he)(he)企业(ye)客户提供一站式(shi)和(he)(he)无站式(shi)的(de)全方位、多元化(hua)服(fu)务,充(chong)分满足客户不断增长的(de)金(jin)融(rong)服(fu)务需求,全面提升产品价值(zhi)和(he)(he)客户服(fu)务增加值(zhi)。

到2009年(nian)(nian)年(nian)(nian)中(zhong)(zhong),豪(hao)彩(cai)(cai)vip基(ji)本(ben)完(wan)成(cheng)(cheng)了(le)"淮(huai)海战(zhan)役":在前端,境(jing)内产险(xian)销(xiao)售(shou)体(ti)制(zhi)改革实施(shi),将以"中(zhong)(zhong)国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)太平"为(wei)统一(yi)品(pin)(pin)牌进(jin)行运作(zuo);在后(hou)端,共享服务集(ji)中(zhong)(zhong),后(hou)援中(zhong)(zhong)心(xin)完(wan)成(cheng)(cheng)物理搬迁和(he)人员集(ji)中(zhong)(zhong)办公(gong)(gong);境(jing)内投资平台整(zheng)合初步(bu)完(wan)成(cheng)(cheng);稽核(he)资源整(zheng)合完(wan)成(cheng)(cheng),稽核(he)中(zhong)(zhong)心(xin)挂(gua)牌并按新体(ti)制(zhi)运作(zuo);集(ji)团公(gong)(gong)司完(wan)成(cheng)(cheng)更(geng)名(ming),集(ji)团品(pin)(pin)牌整(zheng)合工作(zuo)全面(mian)启动(dong);启动(dong)和(he)推进(jin)中(zhong)(zhong)保(bao)国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)际与民安(an)(an)控股(gu)股(gu)权整(zheng)合等(deng)。2009年(nian)(nian)5月7日,中(zhong)(zhong)国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)保(bao)险(xian)(控股(gu))有限(xian)公(gong)(gong)司正式更(geng)名(ming)为(wei)中(zhong)(zhong)国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)太平集(ji)团公(gong)(gong)司,融(rong)汇原中(zhong)(zhong)国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)保(bao)险(xian)、豪(hao)彩(cai)(cai)vip、民安(an)(an)保(bao)险(xian)三大主要品(pin)(pin)牌系列的(de)血脉。使用(yong)"中(zhong)(zhong)国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)太平"为(wei)集(ji)团的(de)名(ming)号(hao),一(yi)方面(mian)保(bao)留了(le)集(ji)团作(zuo)为(wei)国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)有集(ji)团公(gong)(gong)司的(de)名(ming)称(cheng)属性;另一(yi)方面(mian),可(ke)以继续利用(yong)"太平"品(pin)(pin)牌在国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)内的(de)相对优势,带动(dong)集(ji)团的(de)快速发(fa)展。 "中(zhong)(zhong)国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)太平"品(pin)(pin)牌全新登场(chang)。2013年(nian)(nian)7月,正式更(geng)名(ming)为(wei)中(zhong)(zhong)国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)豪(hao)彩(cai)(cai)vip集(ji)团有限(xian)责任公(gong)(gong)司。

中(zhong)(zhong)国(guo)豪彩vip集团(tuan)正式启用后,开始着手民(min)安(an)控(kong)股(gu)(gu)股(gu)(gu)权(quan)私有(you)化、在(zai)香港(gang)证券交易(yi)所(suo)摘牌退市活动。10月7日,民(min)安(an)宣布(bu)停牌。中(zhong)(zhong)国(guo)太(tai)(tai)平(ping)(ping)和民(min)安(an)双双发(fa)表公(gong)告称,中(zhong)(zhong)国(guo)太(tai)(tai)平(ping)(ping)将发(fa)行(xing)近20%新股(gu)(gu)支付收购价,中(zhong)(zhong)国(guo)太(tai)(tai)平(ping)(ping)对民(min)安(an)控(kong)股(gu)(gu)每(mei)股(gu)(gu)收购价为1.31元(yuan),溢价45.56%,总价值(zhi)约为38亿港(gang)元(yuan)。同时,按收购协议,其他股(gu)(gu)东将以(yi)每(mei)10股(gu)(gu)民(min)安(an)股(gu)(gu)份(fen)换(huan)1股(gu)(gu)中(zhong)(zhong)国(guo)太(tai)(tai)平(ping)(ping)新股(gu)(gu)。这一全面(mian)收购方式私有(you)化民(min)安(an)的建议于法(fa)院会议及股(gu)(gu)东特(te)别大(da)会上获大(da)比例(li)通(tong)告,民(min)安(an)控(kong)股(gu)(gu)于11月2日收市后摘牌退市。

历经(jing)92载的风(feng)雨洗(xi)礼,中(zhong)国(guo)(guo)太平已发展成为(wei)一(yi)家拥(yong)有60余万名员工、24家子公司和2000余家各级营业机构、6000亿(yi)总资(zi)(zi)产、总保(bao)(bao)费突(tu)破1500亿(yi)元、管理资(zi)(zi)产突(tu)破1万亿(yi)元的大(da)(da)型(xing)跨国(guo)(guo)金(jin)融(rong)保(bao)(bao)险(xian)(xian)集(ji)团,经(jing)营范围涉及(ji)中(zhong)国(guo)(guo)内地、中(zhong)国(guo)(guo)香港、中(zhong)国(guo)(guo)澳门、北美、欧洲(zhou)、大(da)(da)洋洲(zhou)、东亚及(ji)东南亚等国(guo)(guo)家和地区,业务(wu)范围涵(han)盖寿险(xian)(xian)、财(cai)险(xian)(xian)、养老保(bao)(bao)险(xian)(xian)、再保(bao)(bao)险(xian)(xian)、再保(bao)(bao)险(xian)(xian)经(jing)纪及(ji)保(bao)(bao)险(xian)(xian)代理、互联网保(bao)(bao)险(xian)(xian)、资(zi)(zi)产管理、证券经(jing)纪、金(jin)融(rong)租赁(lin)、不动产投资(zi)(zi)、养老医疗健康产业投资(zi)(zi)等领(ling)域(yu),业务(wu)种类齐全,为(wei)客户提供一(yi)站式综合(he)金(jin)融(rong)保(bao)(bao)险(xian)(xian)服(fu)务(wu)。2018年7月,中(zhong)国(guo)(guo)豪彩(cai)vip集(ji)团高质(zhi)量进入《财(cai)富》世界500强。

  结束语  

92年的辉煌历程与艰辛岁月,赋予了“中国(guo)太(tai)平(ping)(ping)”厚重的文(wen)化底蕴;植根于(yu)本(ben)土,发展(zhan)于(yu)海外的独(du)特经历,成就了“中国(guo)太(tai)平(ping)(ping)”与众(zhong)不(bu)同的企业(ye)内涵(han);进入新时(shi)代(dai),中国(guo)太(tai)平(ping)(ping)将按照(zhao)新发展(zhan)理念的要求,以(yi)“为万世开(kai)太(tai)平(ping)(ping)”的境界(jie),以(yi)“共享(xiang)”为基(ji)本(ben)原则,与客(ke)户(hu)、伙伴(ban)、股(gu)东、员(yuan)工以(yi)及社会(hui)公众(zhong)一道,全(quan)力(li)打造(zao)具有全(quan)球(qiu)竞争力(li)的世界(jie)一流(liu)金融保险企业(ye),共同实现“共享(xiang)太(tai)平(ping)(ping)”的美(mei)好愿景。

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