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保险的来源

现代意义(yi)上(shang)(shang)的(de)保(bao)(bao)险(xian)(xian)(xian),最(zui)(zui)初产(chan)生(sheng)于海上(shang)(shang)运(yun)输的(de)需要。远在(zai)公(gong)元前2000年(nian),航行在(zai)地中海的(de)商人(ren)在(zai)遇海难时,为避免船只和(he)货物(wu)同归于尽, 形成“一人(ren)为大(da)家,大(da)家为一人(ren)”的(de)共同海损分摊(tan)原则,成为海上(shang)(shang)保(bao)(bao)险(xian)(xian)(xian)的(de)萌芽。最(zui)(zui)早(zao)的(de)保(bao)(bao)险(xian)(xian)(xian)单(dan),是(shi)热那亚(ya)商人(ren)勒克维(wei)伦于1347年(nian)10月(yue)23日开立的(de)承担“圣克维(wei)拉”号船从(cong)热那亚(ya)至马乔卡(ka)的(de)航程(cheng)保(bao)(bao)险(xian)(xian)(xian)单(dan)。 1676年(nian)成立的(de)汉(han)堡火灾保(bao)(bao)险(xian)(xian)(xian)社是(shi)最(zui)(zui)早(zao)的(de)专营保(bao)(bao)险(xian)(xian)(xian)的(de)组(zu)织。18世纪(ji)后,保(bao)(bao)险(xian)(xian)(xian)业(ye)迅速(su)发展(zhan)(zhan),保(bao)(bao)险(xian)(xian)(xian)种类增加。到了(le)19世纪(ji),保(bao)(bao)险(xian)(xian)(xian)进入(ru)现代时期,保(bao)(bao)险(xian)(xian)(xian)对(dui)象(xiang)和(he)范围不仅包括(kuo)传统(tong)的(de)财产(chan)损失和(he)人(ren)身伤亡,而且扩展(zhan)(zhan)到生(sheng)存(cun)保(bao)(bao)险(xian)(xian)(xian)、责任保(bao)(bao)险(xian)(xian)(xian)、信用保(bao)(bao)险(xian)(xian)(xian)和(he)再(zai)保(bao)(bao)险(xian)(xian)(xian)等(deng)业(ye)务。

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